when did the taika reforms take place? what were they?
646, the attempt to make the japanese monarch into an absolute chinese style emperor
what events or acitons occured during the taika reforms?
people leanred chinese symbols, wrote dynastic histories, , began elaborate court etiquette of chiense, and aristocracy had trouble adapting to temples, buddhist art and confucian ways, common people in awe of buddhist monks, and bowed to aristocrats acting like confucians
what was the central objective of the taika reforms?
to to remake the japanese monarch into an absolutist chinese style emperor, and evento institute a genuine pr army and peaseant conscript army in japan to match han and tang china
which two groups dominated japan and held back from the taika reforms?
aristocratic famalies and buddhist
what was the power of the monks around the taika reforms? how did they become stronger and when?
so powerful that people would fear rowdy monks in the street; a buddhist prelate worked his way into the inner circle of the emperor koken but plan failed after he was discovered- 760s
what was the problem for buddhists in heian? how did they get around it?
buddhists were forbidden to build monasteries in the new capital; they established monasteries in the hills surrounding it, and soon reemerged as a potent force at court as royal advisors
what other things did kammu do during his rule?
abandoned takia reforms and reinstituted aristocratic families, which the taika had tried to prevent. but japanese allowed mobility between various orders, the aristocrats had most powers in government but now had right to build up rural estates as well and leaders were told to organize militia orders
what was the decor of the house like at the heian court? pastimes?
complex palaces and gardens, buildings with unpainted wood, sliding panels, matted floors, and wooden walkways, fish ponds, artificial lakes with waterfalls, and fine gardens; writing verse was common, and the poems were written on painted fans or scented paper and were short and filled with allusions
how did the japanese develop their language? effect?
took chinese and simplified writing, to make it more compatible with speech. result= outpouring of poetic and literary works tha were more distinctly japanese- the tale of genji
what was the tale of genji?
written by lady murasaki, first novel in any language, related the lify history of a prominent and amourous son of the emperor and the fate of his descendants.genji life almost wholly devoted to aesthetic enjoyment
what was the position of women at the heian court?
they were expected to be as poised and cultured as men, but were more contributive to japanese culture due the fact that men were more intuned to imported chinese culture. they wrote poems, played flutes or stringed instruments and became more involved in palac intrigues and pwer struggles
who were the fujiwara and significance?
mid 9th century aristocratic family that exercised exceptional influence over imperial affais, pakced upper administration with family member and shaped imperial policy, and also increasingly married fijuwara into the imperial family. by of 10th- one general had four fujiwara daughters married to emperors
how did families like fujiwara function?
used wealth and influence of their high office to build up large estates that provided stable financial base for their growing power, and had to compete with buddhist monasteries
how did buddhist and aristocrats work together? what was their fault of working together?
whittled down imperial order and increased their own. as they took over more lands, both monks and court nobility increased the number of peasants and artisans they in effect ruled. cooperation furthered as esoteric buddhism developed secret texts and ceremonies; failed to get support of local lords
how did people in provinces attain power and how did they act?
sme had aristocratic backgrounds but most gained power as landowners, estate managers or local state officials. they controlled land and labor and denied resources to te court. carved our little kingdoms ruled by house governments, built small fortresses surrounded by wooden or earthen walls and moatlike ditches. became self contained worlds.
who were the bushi?
regionalw warrior leaders in japan that ruled small kingdoms from fortresses and administered the law, supervised public work projects, and collected revenues. built up private mansion
who were the samurai and why were they created?
the failure of the court's plans to build conscript armies led to the development of bushi building their own armies. the samuria were mounted troops of japanese warrior leaders, loyal to local lords, not the emperor
what happened as the imperial government control over the country side weakened in the 11th and 12th centuries? effect?
bandits freely roamed the countryside and the streets of the capital as buddhist monasteries employed armed toughs to protect them and attack rival sects; the court hired provinvial lords and samurais to serve as bodyguards and protect their palaces and mansions
what was the weapons of samurai up til 12th century? after?
powerful longbows and spears and straight swords. after- relied on superbly forged curved steel swords
what was seppuku? how was it known in the west?
the practice of having beaten or disgraced warriors commit ritual suicide to prove their courage and restore their family's honor. seppuku means disembowlment; as hara-kiri or belly splitting
what was the effect of the rise of the sammurai on the peasants?
detroyed hopes of free peasantry, peasants were reduced in the next centuries to the status of serfs, bound to the land they worked and treated as the property of the local lord. also separated by rigid class barriers such as dress
what is the effect of the growing poverty and powerlessness of the peasants due to the samaurai?
they turned to popular buddhism in salvation, which offered the promise of bliss in heaven for those who lived upright lives on earth
what happened during the mid 12th century regarding the royal court and two famalies?
taira and minamoto had open fighting
what was the problem between taira and minamoto?
for a time, taira gained the upperhand by controlling the emperor and dominating at cour, but when rivalry turned to open warfarein 1180s, minamoto commanders and powerfu network of alliances with prvincial lords proved superior, tiara concentration of their power grabbing efforts in the capital led to the breakdown of ciritical links with rural notables, who often sided with minamoto
what happened to chinese influence as japanese imperiality weakened? in wht ways was it stopped?
the relevance of chinese precedents and institution dimished for the japanese;heavenly mandate and centralized power were seen as silly, the emergence of scholar gentry was stopped by the reassertion of aristocratic power and prerogatives, imperal bureaucracy never made. buddhism formed into jap religion
what is the earliest date that chinese stopped sending embassies to china/tang?
838; didnt grovel at emperor anymore but still conducted trade
what were the gempi wars? how long did they last?
waged for five years from 1180, on honshu between taira and minamoto famalies and resulted in the destruction of the taira , lasted for five years
what was the effect of the gempi wars?
brought great suffering to peasantry, whose farmlands were ravaged and still compelled to fight eachother. poor peasants tried to fight and were demolished by samurais
what was the end result of the gumpei wars?
by 1185, taira had been destroyed. minamoto established bakufu capital was located at kamakura in basr on kanto plain, whic hwas east of heian
when did the feudal age in the japan actually really begin?
after the gumpi wars between taira and minatmoto and minamoto took power
what was bakufu?
military governemtn established by minamoto after the gumpei wars, centered at kamakura, retained emperor but real power resided in military government and samuarai
who was the leader of the minamoto?what was his effect?
yorimoto, weakened kamjrua regime because of his obsessive fear of being verthrown by family members. many helpful and devoted family members were driven into exile or murdered
what did the fear of spies during the morimoto reign cause?
element of paranoia among the elire life under the first kamakura shoguns
who were the hojo?
pne of the warrior famalies that had long been closely allied to the minamoto, and soon dominated the kamakura regime after yorimotos death
what was the effect on power as the hojo family took over the kamakura regime after the death of yorimoto?
a three tiered system arose. real power rested in hojo who manipulated the minamoto shoguns, who in turn claimed to rule in the name of the emperor who lived kyoto
what was the effect of ashikaga takuaji in the 14th century>
led a revolt of the bushi that overthew the kamakura regime and established ashikaga shogunate. the old emperor was exiled out to yoshino, where he got some lord support and began to work against the ashikaga power
what was the effect of the yoshina revolt?
ashikaga eventually stopped them but the long period of civil strife seriously undermined whatever authority the emperor had left as well as the shogunate
what was the effect of the civil war on the bushi? the bushi effect on others?
the bushi could crush local rivals, and seize the lands of the peasantry, the old aristocracy and competing warlords so their power increased the court aristocracy was impoverished by its inability to defend its estates
what was done with the land that the bushi acquired during the civil war?
parceled out to samaurai who in turn pledged loyalty and were expected to provide military support whenver their lord called upon them
how was the collapse of centralization furthered and when?
by the outbreak of full scale civil ware between 1467 and 1477
what happened during the civil war outbreak between 1467 and 1477?
rival hiers to ashikaga shogunate called on warrior chief to support claim and samurai flocked to rival headquarters in different section of kyoto.
what happened to the old imperial capital as a result of the civil war time in the 15th century? what was going on with local lords at his point?
within a matter of years, the old imperial capital had been reduced to rubble and weed chokes fields; provinical lords continued to amass power and plot new coalitions to destroy their enemies
what was the final effect of the civil war of the 15th century?
japan was divided into nearly 300 little kingdoms who had warlords called daimyo rather than bushi
what were daimyos?
warlord rulers of 300 divided small states following civil war and disruption of ashikaga shogunate, holdings consolidated into unidied and bounded ministates
what happened to the chivalristic qualities of the nobilistic army?
despite other improvements chivalry of the bushi era deterioated
what was warfare like under the daimyo?
spying, sneak attacks, ruses, and timely betrayals. large number of peasants armed with pikes became critical component on daimyo armies. victory began dependeing on size and organizaation of warlords forces and on how effectively comanders used them in the feild
what was the effect of poor peasantry in the army?
they pilaged and looted, and peasantry in different areas rose up in hopeless but ferocious revolts which led towards brutality and destruction
how did the daimyo era encourage economic and cultural growth?
stablizied villlage life within their domains by ontroducing regular tax collection, suporting the construction of irrigation systems and other public works, and building strong rural communities. incentives to occupy new areas, new tools, new draft aniamls and new crops contributed to peasantry
what other class emerged during the daimyo period?
a new and wealthy commerical class emerged a purveyor of goods for the military elite and intermediaries in trade between japan and oversea areas like china
what form of group was similar to that of europe?
guilds were formed for artisans and merchants which helped provide solidarity and group protection
how was the position of japanese women possibly encouraged during the daimyo period?
by the growth of comerce and handicraft industries. owmen in merhcnat and artisans famalies apparently exercised a fair degree of independence by participation in guilds and business among management and sometimes positions were inherited by daughters
what happened to the status of women in the warrior elite?
in earleir centures the wives and daughters of the provinical bushi households were taight to ride and use bow and arrow and often joined in hunt. by 14th and 15th, trend among daimyo fmaalies toward primogeniture or limiting inheritance to oldest son, dealth heavy blow to women of the classes. now has little to no land or income
what were the terrors of women at the time?
disinhertance was increased, made to marry for alliances between households, should slay themselves rather than dishonor family, lost ability to be in local performances
what religion helped mollify the fear of constant wars between samurais and wars? what sect? what did it promote?
buddhism, zen, focused on simplicity and discipline which appealed to warrior elite, promoted arts
what were the effect of zen monasteries during the samurai time?
reinrtoduced chinese influence because monasteries were a place of chinese contact
what is the art of the after ashikaga time like?
much had earlier chinese work, also monchrome ink japanese sketches, screen and scroll paintings, filled with japanese life,
what was the architecture of the ashikaga and on like?
golden and solver pavilians for ashikaga shoguns in kyoto, contemplative tea gardens, ryoanji temple of volcanic rocks and white pebbles, lasted until end of feudal, zen and shinto influenced
who were the indigenous koreans?
hunting and herding peoples of eastern siberia and manchuria rather than the mongolia and turks to the west like china
when did the first borrowing from china occur for korea? what was it?
4th century, borrowed sedentary farming and metalworking techniques
what was the earliest korean kingdom? who ruled it/took over it in what year?how did this affect korea?
choson, 109 bce-han emperor wudi. parts of korea were colonized by chinese settlers and the colonies became a channel for chinese culture to filter into korean culture in the critical centuries of its early development
how did korea develop some contact with japan during the choson period?
had some contact in the southeast peninsula by a small japanese enclave
did indigenous people accept chinese rule? who was the northern group that did not accept chinese? what did they do as chinese control weakened? what two other places were they at rival with?
no, koguryo, established independent state in northern hald of peninsula; silla and paekche,
what was sinification and when was the first wave of it in korea ?
the extensive adoption og chinese culture after the fall of the han and korguryo dynasty
what was the key link between krorea and the successors of the han dynasty and northeast china? why?
buddhism; korean rulers patronized buddhist art, financed building of monasteries and pagodas, scholars traveled to china, and some when to india for buddhism
what other element was introduced to korea in its early development that linked it to japan? what effect did it have, especially by the aid of the ruler?
chinese writing; korguryo monarch imposed a unified law code patterned after that of han china. established universities, where okoreans would master confucian classics and china history was taught
what kind of bureaucracy did the emperor try to use to improve his wealth and power? why did it not work?
chinese style, but noble famalies who supported him had little use for project that posed such an obvious threat to their own power, so the monarch did not have the resources for the job
what were the effects of the early korean kingdoms quarreling?
none gained power over the other. internal strife weakened korea to outside attack-sui failed, but tang eventually succedded
how did the tang invade and what was the effect?
although koguryo warriors were stubborn, tang took advantage of divisions. they struck an alliance with the rulers of the silla then destroyed paekche and koguryo
why was tang forced to strike a deal with silla? what was the terms of the deal?
the chinese conqueres fought with silla over how to divide the spoils and silla was able to fight back sucessfully, also their were revolts in in former paekche and koguryo territories. the deal was that in return for regular tribute payments and silla monarchs submission as a vassal of the tang emperor, the chinese withdrew armies in 668. so silla became rulers of korea
in what ways did the silla monarch promote chinese adoption?
sent embassies and tribute to tang court, korean scholars collected chinese texts and noted the latest fashions in court elegance and dress. regularly attended on the chinese emperor, very dedicated to tribute system
what was the nature of the chinese tribute system for the silla? how did the chinese view the system?;
very dedicated;surrounding areas were mainly in tribute and chinese emperor was fine with not conquering. emissaries gave splendid gifts, acknowledged superiority and kowtowed
how did the koreans feel about the tribute system as in was it fair? how did merchants play a part?
seemed fair for benefits. had peace with chinese, but also got richer gifts than the tribute beareres offered to the chinese ruler. had access to learning, art, manufacturing; merchants were normally included in tribute missions because their ability to buy up chinese manufactures and sell their own goods in chinese market jinged on their countrys participation in the tribute system
what kind of medium did the tribute system act as?
channel of trade and intercultural exchange between china and its neighbors
where did silla build their cpatial and what was it called? what was the layout?
kumsong on kyongku plain. streets laid out on regular grid with central markets, parks, lakes. but aristocratic surrounded imperial palace with their mansions that housed large extended famalies hundreds of slaves and hanger ons. made up most of population of capital
what were the pursuits of artisocrats in the silla capital? why were the options easily available to them?
some went to chinese schools, minority did confucian test rigors. most did art and entertainment; most positions in the government were still occupied by members of the aristocratic by virture of birth rather than knowledge of confucian classics
did the korean elite favor buddhism of confucian? why? how did they support it?
buddhism, self-interest rather than to copy chinese, endowed monasteries patronized works of religious art, capital crowded with buddhist temples, buddhist monks among top hierarchy peoples, , had chinese based schools from buddhism, art and monasteries as chiense prototypes, rituals
how did the koreans in silla time outdo their chinese counterparts?
most notable was their pottery, learned of porcelain from chinese but then perfected it, used oxide glazes for black. rust color; then improved on printing, koreans disocovered way to hold the metal type in pleace in the long registers in which it was assembled for printing, used honey as glue to fix type temporarily then disassembile it when finished
how were the aristocrats shut off from others?
monopolized chinese imports, never intermarried or sociazlied with other ranks, filled most of bureaucracy, dominated social and economic life of entire kingdom. main focus of trade was to supply aristocrats with specialty clothing, teas, scorlls, and artwork
how did royal family and aristocrats play a part in the economy? effect?
financed artisan production for export or for the court, som e backed mercantile expeditions and engaged extensively in money lending; limited activites of artisans and traders
what was the rank of the artisans and traders in korean society?
artans were low in status and pprly paid, traders so low didnt even form a class
who were the people under the elite koreans? what helped relieve the drudgery of low life?
government functionaries- separate social category, commoner who were mainly peasants,near-slaves or the low born and ranged from miners and artisans to servants and entertainers; buddhist festivals and salvationist teachings
what was the result of mild rebellions by the peasants? when was real conflict and turmoil triggered?
weakened the silla and koryo regimes along with fights between aristocratic households and outside invasions; in 1231 by mongols
when was the yi dynasty established? when did it stop ruling korea? what were their actions?
1392- 1910; restored aristocratic dominance and links to china that had predominated under their predecessors
what was the tension of the viets about being conquered?
likd the superior technology, modes of political organization, ideas they received from china but didnt want to lose their own identity
what was the first mention of the viets?
group of southern barbarians mentioned by chinese cscholars in qin raids in 220s bce. the kingdom was called nam viet, extened along southern coastal area
what was the first interaction between vietnam and china?
raids led to trade- viets traded ivory, tortoise shells, pearls, peacock feathers, aromatic woods in exhanged for manufactured silk
what was the change in the vietnamese a few centuries after the qin riads? effect?
viet rulers defeated feudal lords occupying red river valley and brought their lands under control of viet kingdom. they then intermarried with mon-khmer and tai speaking peoples. crucial step in formation of vietnamese as ethnic group
who were the khmers?
people viets intermarried with, today known as cambodians, indianized rivals, moved to mekong river delta region at time of vietnamese move to south
what was the pre-chinese domination culture of the viets?
language not related to chinese, strong tradition of viilage autonomy, favored nuclear family, never developed clan networks, women had more freedom and influence both in family and in society at larfe, were dominant force in both local and large urban mrkets and the trading system more generally
what were vietnamese cultural differences from chinese?
liked different dress- women wore long skirts, liked cockfights, chewed betel nut, even while under chinese rule kept their ideas and developed poretry and art that was distinct
what was the intial view of the viets by the han? how did it change? how was the conquest done?
han settled for viet rulers admissions to his vassal status and periodic payents of tribute but in 111 bce, han thought better to conquer. red river valley was garrisoned by chinese troops, chinese admins set to work coopting the local lords and encouraging them to adopt chinese culture. viet elite realized hadmuch to learn, so they cooperated
what happened to the vietnamese elite after they were conquered by han emperor?
drawn into bureaucratic machine that the han emperors and shi or bureaucrats had developed to hold together the qin empire. attended chiense style schools, wrote in hinese conscript,, memorized confucius and mencius, exams for admin posts, chinese cropping techniques and irrigation technology
what was the effect of chinese irrigation on the viets? effect?
let vietname be the most productive agriculture in southeast asia, could now support mor epeople
what was the effect of chinese politial and military organization for the viets?
viets had decisive edge over peoples to west and south who were indianized and clashed with them over land
what happened to viet family structure after han dominance?
moved to extended family, venerated ancestors in confucian manner
why would the viets never be fully assimilated?
failure of chinese important to make much of an impression on peasantry, and revolts by aristocracy
what was the most famous uprising by the viets against the chinese? led by? when? effect?
trung sisters, who were children of a deposed local leader, 39 ce, demonstrates importance of vietnamese women in indigenous society
how did viet women feel about chinese codes?
dislik,e, would have been confined to household, subjected to male figures
what led to difficulty on ruling over the viets?
great distances and mountain barriers, only small number of chinese-bureaucrats, soldiers, merchants- lived in red river valley permanently, and strength of chinese rule depended on dynasty. viets took advantage of political turmoil and nomadic incursions
when did the viets start mounting their great rebellion? when did they esablish independence? how long did they rule their own land?
after fall of tang in 907, 939, until 19th century when france conquered
what was the first viet dynasty? effect?
le, source of legitamacy for the rest, built chinese style palaces, ruled through smaller copy bureacuracy with secretariats, sic main ministries, and bureau of censors. civil service exams introduced, adminsitrative elite schooled in confucian classic s
why did the viet schoalr gentry never have as much power as chinese counterpart?
their control at village level was much less secure, local vietnamese official tended to identify with the peasantry rahter than with court and higher admins, lookd out for local interests and served as leaders in a villiage uprisings against ruling dynasties when demands became too oppresive
what was the buddhist place in 10th century vietnam?
buddhist had strong links to peasantry, popular by women upheld
who were the vietnams main adversaries after independence? why?
chams and khmers, viets didnt wanna expand north, so launched periodic expedition to retaliate for raids on their villages and traded, but didnt want cultural exchange
how did chinese help vietnamese against chams? what was history with chams?
viets ahd superior bureaucratic and h miltary organization. 11th -18th cent had successful wars, drove chams to north, then clashed with khmers where viets also won and drove them to mekong river
how did the separation within the vietnamese dyasnty occur? effect?
southerners intermarried with and asopted some of the customs of the hams and khmers. north began to see south as slow in speech and less energetic; hanoi based dynasties lost hold, south less responsive o north, slower tax sending
who were the nguyen?
rival vietnames dyasnty that arose in southern vietnam to challenege traditional dynasty of trinh in north at hanoi, kingdom centered on red and mkekong rivers at hue cpaital
who were the trinh
dyansty that ruled in northern vietnam at hanoi, 1533 to 1722, rival of nguyen family in south
where was the territory of the nguyen? what was their capital?
red and mekong rivers that conneceted two great rice bowls; hue;