Plant Unit Bio

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Terms in this set (...)

Four Traits Plants and Charophyceans Share
1. Rings of cellulose-synthesizing proteins (Rosette cellulose synthesizing complexes)
2. Flagellated sperm
3. Formation of phragmoplast
4. Peroxisome organelles near chloroplasts
What resource did plants need to find a way to conserve to move to land?
Water
Why is the text using the definition of embryophytes for inclusion in the plant kingdom?
The boundary dividing land plants an algae is debatable
Five traits that separate plants from charophyceans?
1. Alterations of generations
2. Multicellular, dependent embryos
3. Walled spores produced in sporangia
4. Multicellular gargantuan
5. Apical Meristems
-gia
Plant
What General characteristics could you infer about plants that lack vascular tissue?
They don't have deep rooted stems or leaves
What general characteristics could you infer about plants that have vascular tissue?
Their nutrients are delivered throughout the entire plant through tunnels
Alternate to having a seed
spore
Rhizoid
long tubular single cells
Stomata
specialized pores
Ecological benefits of moss
Holds stuff in place, can be burned for energy, regulates nitrogen cycle
Dominant life cycle in seedless vascular plants
haploid gametophyte
Xylem
transports water and nutrients
Lignin
makes up the xylem
Phloem
transports food
Roots
take in water
Leaves
absorb sunlight
Homosporous
one type of sporangia
Heterosporous
more than one type of sporangia
Advantage of reduced gametophyte
more protected from environmental stress
Ovule
the developmental structure for the female gametophyte; produces one or more eggs
Pollen grains
male gametophyte; enclosed in the pollen wall
Pollination
the transfer of pollen from the part of the seed that contains the ovule
Seed
the fertilized gymnosperm that consists of the embryo, food supply, and protective coating
Evolutionary advantages to seed formation
seeds can remain dormant longer, can be multicellular, and have their own food supply
Gymnosperm
plants with a "naked seed"
Flower
sexually reproducing angiosperm
Sepals
base of the flower
Petals
brightly colored interiors of the sepals that aid in attracting pollinators
Stamen
produce microspores that develop into grains containing male gametophytes
Filament
the stalk part of the stamen
Anther
the internal sac of the stamen where pollen is produced
Stigma
the sticky top of the carpel that receives pollen
Style
the part leading from the stigma to the ovary
Ovary
the base of the carpel, containing one or more ovules
Fruit
a fertilized, developed ovary
Cross-pollination
the transfer of pollen from one flower to another via the stigma
Double Fertilization
fertilization that produces a zygote and a triploid cell
Cotyledon
Sporophyte embryo with rudimentary root and one or two seed leaves
Function of the endosperm
nourishing the embryo with food and starch
Dicots
two cotyledons (seed leaves), leaves with network of veins; woody plants, trees, shrubs, beans
Monocots
one cotyledon, leaves with parallel veins; grasses, palms, lilies
Coevolution
angiosperms and animals evolved together
Adaptions of plants for dry land
waxy cuticle, stomata, xylem and phloem, seeds
Walled Sporangia
where spores are made
Multicellular gametangia
where gametes are made
Tree of Plants (oldest to newest) and Evolved traits
charophyceans (embryophytes) bryophytes (vascular tissues) pteridophytes (naked seed) gymnosperms (flowers and fruit) angiosperms
Photoperiodism
reaction of an organism to length of day and night
Long Day Plants
flower in late spring or early summer when daylight is increasing
Short Day Plants
flower in late summer or early fall when daylight is decreasing
Day Neutral Plants
don't flower in response to light but rather to water or temperature
Tropism
turning in response to a stimulus
Auxins
promote plant growth and phototropism
Gibberellins
promote stem elongations
Cytokinins
promote cell division and differentiation
Abscisic Acid
inhibits leaf abscission and promotes bud dormancy
Ethylene
induces leave abscission and promotes fruit ripening
Transpiration
test the effects of the environmental factors on rate of _______