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Adv. Chemistry - Ch. #14 Review
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Gravity
Key Concepts:
Terms in this set (60)
Boyle's Law
This states that for a given mass of a gas at constant temperature, the volume of a gas varies inversely with the pressure.
compressibility
This is a measure of how much volume of matter will decrease with pressure.
Charles's Law
This states that the volume of a fixed mass of gas is directly proportional to its Kelvin temperature, if the pressure remains constant.
Gay-Lussac's Law
This states that the pressure of a gas is directly proportional to the Kelvin temperature if the volume remains constant.
Combined gas law
This describes the relationship among the pressure, temperature, and volume of an enclosed gas.
ideal gas constant
This value with the variable (R) has the value of 8.31 L(kPa)
ideal gas law
The gas law that contains all 4 variables: P,V,T and n.
combined gas law
What gas law has the equation P1V1/T1 = P2V2/T2?
Boyles Law
What gas law has the equation P1V1 = P2V2?
ideal gas law
What gas law has the equation PV = nRT?
Charles Law
What gas law has the equation V1/T1 = V2/T2?
Gay-Lussac Law
What gas law has the equation P1/T1 = P2/T2?
Because of the massive amount of empty spaces between the particles.
What is it about a gas that makes it easy to compress?
The amount of the gas (n).
The 3 factors that can affect air pressure are temperature, pressure and ____________.
The can's volume will reduce and you will smash the can.
If you have a sealed can of hot air and you place it in cold water, what will happen?
decreases
If the temperature of a contained gas in a sealed container is decreased, the pressure _________.
increase
If the temperature of a contained gas in a sealed container increases, the pressure will ____________.
increase
If the number of particles of the particles in a sealed container increase, like with a football and an air pump, what happens to the pressure?
decreases
If the temperature of the particles in a sealed container decrease, what happens to the volume of the container assuming a constant pressure?
increase
If the temperature of the particles in a sealed container is increased, what happens to the volume of the container, assuming the pressure is constant?
decrease
If the pressure on a sealed container is increased, and the temperature is constant, what will happen to the volume?
The volume would have to be increased 10 times.
If the temperature is constant, what change in volume would cause the pressure of an enclosed gas to be reduced to 1/10th of its original value?
6.48-L
Nitrous oxide, N2O, is used as an anesthetic. The pressure of 2.50-L of N2O changes from 105-kPa to 40.5-kPa. If the temperature doesn't change, what will the new volume be?
68.3-kPa
A gas with a volume of 4.00-L at a pressure of 205-kPa is allowed to expand to a volume of 12.0-L. If the temperature remains constant, what is the new pressure?
3.39-L
If the sample of gas occupies 6.80-L at 325 degrees Celsius, what will its volume be at 25 degrees Celsius, if the pressure does not change?
8.36-L
5.00-L of air at -50.0 degrees Celsius is warmed to 100 degrees Celsius. If the pressure remains constant, what is the new volume?
2.58-kPa
A sample of nitrogen gas has a pressure of 6.58-kPa at 539K. If the volume doesn't change, what is the new pressure at 211-K?
68 degrees Celsius or 341-K
The pressure of a car tire is 198-kPa at 27 degrees Celsius. After a long drive, the pressure is 225-kPa. Assuming the volume is constant, what is the temperature of the air in the tire in degrees Celsius and Kelvin, respectively?
0.342-L
A gas at 155-kPa and 25 degrees Celsius has an initial volume of 1.00-L. The pressure of the gas increases to 605-kPa as the temperature is raised to 125 degrees Celsius. What is the new volume?
129-kPa
At 5.00-L, an air sample has a pressure of 107-kPa and a temperature of -50 degrees Celsius. If the temperature is increased to 102 degrees Celsius and the volume expands to 7.00-L, what is the new pressure?
decreases
If the temperature is constant, the volume of a gas _________ as the pressure increases.
increases
If the pressure is constant, as the temperature increases, the volume __________.
increases
If the volume is constant, as the temperature increases, the pressure ___________.
The number of particles in the container.
What is the only constant when you use the combined gas law?
24.2-L
A given mass of air has a volume of 6.00-L at 101-kPa. What volume will it occupy at 25.0-kPa if the temperature doesn't change?
251-moles
When the temperature of a rigid-hollow sphere containing 685-L of helium gas is held at 621-K, the pressure of the gas is 1890-kPa. How many moles of helium does the sphere contain?
2.5 grams
A child's lungs can hold 2.20-L. How many grams of air do her lungs hold at a pressure of 1-2-kPa and a body temperature of 37 degrees Celsius. Use a molar mass of 29 grams for air.
Low temperatures and high pressures
Under what conditions would a real gas deviate most from ideal behavior?
ideal gas
A gas that follows the gas laws at all conditions of pressure and temperature is called a(n) ____________.
17.0-L
Determine the volume occupied by 0.582-moles of a gas at 15 degrees Celsius if the pressure is 81.8 kPa.
1710-kPa
What pressure is exerted by 0.450-moles of a gas at 25 degrees Celsius if the gas is in a 0.650-L container?
liquify
In a real gas, if you were to increase the pressure and lower the temperature, the gas would eventually _____________.
The space between the particles would be reduced and more collisions between the particles would occur.
What happens to the particles of a gas when the gas is compressed?
The particles inside have less kinetic energy and they slow down, leading to less collisions and collisions with less force.
Why does a basketball, left outside on a winter's day, become flat even when there is no leak?
The pressure will double.
A metal container contains 1 mole of N2 gas. What will happen to the pressure if another mole of gas is added to the cylinder, but the temperature and volume do not change?
It quadruples.
If a gas is compressed from 4-L to 1-L and the temperature remains constant, what happens to the pressure?
100-kPa
The gas in a closed container has a pressure of 300-kPa at 30 degrees Celsius. What will the pressure be if the temperature is lowered to -172 degrees Celsius?
1.80-L
Calculate the volume of a gas in liters at a pressure of 100-kPa, if the temperature remains the same, but the original volume was 1500-mL and new pressure is 120-kPa?
18-L
A gas with a volume of 4.0-L at 90.0-kPa expands until the pressure drops to 20.0-kPa. What is the new volume, if the temperature remains constant?
846-K
A gas with a volume of 300-mL at 150 degrees Celsius is heated until the volume reaches 600-mL. What is the new temperature, in Kelvin, if the pressure remains constant during the heating process.
110-kPa
A sealed container of nitrogen gas at a pressure of 100-kPa and a temperature of 20 degrees Celsius. When the container is left in the sun, the temperature rises to 50 degrees Celsius. Assuming the volume is the same, what is the new pressure?
ideal gas
___________ has particles with no volume and there are no attractions between them and all collisions between them are perfectly elastic at all temperatures and pressures.
17.6-L
What volume will 12.0-g of oxygen gas occupy at 25 degrees Celsius and 52.7-kPa pressure?
360-kPa
If 4.50-grams of methane gas, (CH4), is in a 2.00-L container at 35 degrees Celsius. What is the pressure in the container?
41.9-g
A helium-filled balloon has a volume of 240-L at 99-kPa and a temperature of 0-degrees Celsius. What is the mass of the helium in the balloon?
165-degrees Celsius
A 3.50-L gas sample at 20 degrees Celsius and a pressure of 86.7-kPa expands to a volume of 8.0-L. The final pressure of the system is 56.7-kPa. What is the final temperature in degrees Celsius?
They are directly proportional.
When the ratio of two variables is always a constant, what can you tell about the relationship between the two variables?
240-mL
A gas in a balloon at a constant pressure has a volume of 120.0-mL at -123 degrees Celsius. What is the volume at 27 degrees Celsius?
1.5(P1)
If the Kelvin temperature of a gas triples and the volume is doubled, the new pressure will be _____________.
low
Gas always flows from a region of high pressure to a region of _________ pressure.
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