neurobio psych exam 3

You are not noticing the soft hum of the projector right now (though, you are now... sorry). What phenomenon is responsible for you not perceiving that stimuli (until we mentioned it)?
Click the card to flip 👆
1 / 53
Terms in this set (53)
Which metabotropic protein in rods is responsible for opening and closing the Na+ Channels?rhodopsinConscious awareness happens in the ______, while reflexive orientation before this occurs happens in the _______?cortex, superior colliculus (brainstem)If you are in a very-brightly lit room, how much glutamate can we expect to be released?noneSeeing a yellow/red afterimage would mean which cones were active prior?short (s)Optic ataxia is a condition in which someone can't reach for an object successfully. This is due to lesions or damage in which processing pathway (its formal name, not the nickname)?dorsal pathwayThe inability to remember new events/ form new memories is known as?anterograde amnesiaLTP occurs in which functional region of the brain (a reason HM couldn't form new memories).hippocampusWhich neurotransmitter is a natural ligand for AMPA/NMDA receptors in LTP?glutamateWhat condition did Henry Molaison have that warranted a Bi-lateral medial lobectomy?epilepsy______ receptors have a _____ ion that blocks its channel until a depolarization event occurs.NMDA; magnesium (Mg2+)List any two areas of the brain involved in the working memory.PFC, ACC, Broca's area, Wernicke's area, temporal and parietal lobesWhat is the regulatory cell that can cause increased NT release via a presynaptic change?interneuronIn rodent studies, knockout of which receptor was able to show the biological mechanism of LTP and memory formation?NMDASynaptic changes that produce a stable and more effective synapse is known as ________Long Term Potentiation (LTP)Intracellular activation of this protein is responsible for dendritic branching and formation of new AMPA receptors on the postsynaptic neuronCaMKIIThe blind spot in the eye is created by what anatomical feature?the optic nerve (disc)How can our brain distinguish between salty v. sweet v. spicy?labeled linesWhat particles are contained in light that interact with rods that determine how bright we perceive light?photonsWhat is the name of the kind of synapse that displays this feature important for learning & memory: "cells that fire together wire together"Hebbian SynapseWhich protein is responsible for the development of Tangles in patients with Alzheimer's?Tau- ProteinIpsillaterallywhen the stimulus is recognized on the same side of the same as it was taken inLight is absorbed by ____________, which synapse with ____________, which synapse with ____________, whose axons give rise to the optic nerve.photoreceptors; bipolar cells; retinal ganglion cellsWhen light activates rhodopsin on a _________, it ________________.rod; causes less neurotransmitter to be releasedPhotoreceptor cells contain ___________ receptors called photopigments, and are ___________ by light.metabotropic; hyperpolarizedYou first become conscious of what you are seeing when the signal reaches your _____________ in the visual pathway.primary visual cortexThere are three types of cones, distinguishable by the ____________ they contain, which affects their sensitivity to ____________.photopigments; wavelengths in lightBelow is an image of a red apple. Choose the correct description of how you know this apple is red.Short and medium wavelengths are absorbed by the apple, and long wavelength light reflects off the apple and interacts with "L" cones in the eye -- this pattern of activity tells your brain "this is a red apple"Case studies studying brain damage in patients (like Patients H.M. and K.C.) reveal that the __________ is essential for general declarative memories and the __________ is important for storing episodic memories.hippocampus; cortexMemories are encoded through changes in neural function and structure -- the notion that changes in the structure and function of synapses can occur in response to experiences is called ____________.neuroplasticityLong-term potentiation is ________________, and involves _______________ receptors in the hippocampus.a stable and enduring enhancement of synaptic transmission; glutamateWhich two forms of learning & memory involve the cerebellum?Classical conditioning and Procedural learningTransduction occurs in the _____________;sensory receptorsReflexive responses to sensory inputs occur in the _____________;brainstemSensory information is then relayed to the primary cortical regions by the _____________thalamusSensory receptors are similar to neurotransmitter receptors such that...when activated they can generate action potentialsThe concept that describes how sensory receptors are specific to certain kinds of stimuli, and those receptors then activate specific neurons that are specialized to respond to a specific kind of stimulus, and those neural signals are then sent through a specific circuit of neurons that lead to a specialized part of the thalamus that processes that specific kind of stimulus, which then relays that information to the primary cortical region for that specific sensory modality is called _______________.labeled linesYou hear someone you can't see call your name. Which is likely to occur FIRST?reflexive action that may cause you to turn toward where the voice was coming fromTwo kinds of sensory receptor cells (called photoreceptors) in the visual system are...rods and conesVisual information is first processed by photoreceptors in the ________, which is located in the ________ of the eye.retina ; backInformation from my left visual world is processed in my...right visual cortexFill in the blanks to correctly complete this sentence about how photoreceptors respond to light: In the dark, they _________ release neurotransmitter; in the light, they release _________ neurotransmitter.continuously; lessThe photoreceptors known as _____________ are the basis of color vision.conesWhat part of the thalamus do most axons from the optic tract terminate in (i.e., where do the axons project to)?Lateral Geniculate Nucleus (LGN)