Chapter 3 (psych 339), Abnormal Psychology Ch 9

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1. In the DeShawn case described in the beginning of the chapter, DeShawn, a 21-year-old student, was described as possibly having a series of problems associated with
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11. If Sam thrives on public speaking and making presentations, and George considers these same behaviors problematic, then we can recognize thatb. their perceptions of stress are different.12. Teresa has a long family history of depression and has long been aware of her own increased risk. However, she had not had any significant problems with depression until her company suddenly closed, leaving her without a job and with substantial student loans and other financial obligations. Despite having no personal history of depression, she is now severely depressed. What has most likely changed?c. her stressors13. According to the diathesis-stress model, stress must ____ a predisposition for a disorder to occur.b. interact with14. Suppose two people have virtually identical predispositions to impulsivity. Would they likely have the same risk of developing a disorder related to impulsivity?c. Maybe, but only if they experience the same levels of stress.15. In the example described in your text, Mariella may have been troubled because significant college stress triggered her predisposition for depression. However, her friend, who had the same type of predisposition but stayed at home after high school,a. showed no symptoms of depression.16. Thom has a family history of alcoholism and has struggled with addiction himself. He believes that, in his case, his use of drugs relates to his desire for excitement and sensation-seeking. When he notices that his five-year-old daughter is quite a daredevil, he becomes concerned and wonders whether she might also be at risk of substance use disorders. Thom is most accurately described as worrying about a possiblea. diathesis17. The perception of stress can be influenced by a person because stress is best described asa. subjective.18. Because it partially determines the range and variety of life events we experience, a(n) ____ can also control the stressors to which we are exposed.a. diathesis19. Nancy, like many in her family, has a tendency to be impulsive, to make rash decisions, and to act without thinking about possible outcomes. As a result, she sometimes finds herself buying luxury items she cannot afford or making less-than-healthy relationship decisions, which, in turn, results in her experiencing higher levels of stress that lead to her making more impulsive decisions. This illustrates thed. interaction of diathesis and stress20. Where one person is naturally outgoing and social, and another person naturally prefers solitude and isolation, it would follow thata. these two people might choose different experiences.21. The cause of a mental disorder is also called itsc. etiology.22. When mental health professionals study the etiology of a disorder, they are investigatingc. its causes.23. If one person has a greater tendency toward psychological problems than another person, we can properly consider the first person to have morec. risk factors.24. According to the National Comorbidity Survey-Replication (NCS-R), who is most likely to have a severe mental disorder?b. someone with a mood disorder25. Scientists who make observations, survey people, and use other methods to investigate the extent of a public health problem are known asb. epidemiologists.26. Joan has a career where she studies the patterns of disease or disorder in the general population. She is most likely working as a(n)d. epidemiologist.27. Who is considered to be one of the modern "fathers" of epidemiology"?d. John Snow28. ____ refers to new cases of a particular disorder within a specific time period, whereas ____ refers to all cases of a particular disorder within a specific time period.b. Incidence; prevalence29. Jane is counting all cases of a mental disorder within a specific time period. She is attempting to determine thea. prevalence.30. Both prevalence and lifetime prevalence estimates help us understand thea. likelihood of mental disorder.31. The total number of cases of a mental disorder occurring within a specific period yield itsa. prevalence.32. A major epidemiological survey of Americans was theb. National Comorbidity Survey Replication.33. Sarah has been diagnosed with depression and panic disorder, which is an anxiety disorder. These disorders are thus seen as ____ because they occur together in the same person.c. comorbid34. The NCS-R is considered to be a(n) ____ survey.b. representative35. Analysis of the NCS-R data has indicated thatc. mental disorders differ with respect to severity, and many people show only mild symptoms.36. In the U.S., individuals who have been diagnosed with a mental disorder are most likely to seek services fromb. general medical service providers.37. Because mental disorders differ with respect to severity, and many people show only mild symptoms,a. many people with disorders do not seek treatment.38. The individual who both identified the cause of a cholera outbreak and identified a simple but effective way to stop the epidemic isc. John Snow.39. According to the NCS-R, which disorders have the highest prevalence?b. anxiety and mood40. Lifetime prevalence is highest for ____ disorders.a. anxiety-related41. Prevalence data are crucial in determiningb. where to assign treatment and prevention resources.42. According to your text, most persons with a substance use disorder experience ____ symptoms.b. moderate43. A unique aspect of the NCS-R in comparison to other psychiatric epidemiology surveys is that questions were asked about the ____ of the disorders.a. onset44. According to the NCS-R, the median age of onset for mental disorders, regardless of type, isb. 14 years.45. According to the National Comorbidity Survey-Replication (NCS-R), the lifetime prevalence of mental disorders for U.S. adults is 46.4%. What does this mean?c. At some point in their lives, nearly half of Americans will have a mental disorder.46. Significant differences in disorder expression depending on demographic features such as age are called ____ effects.d. cohort47. Treatment trends by age show us thatb. younger people are more likely to seek treatment.48. Katherine lives in a state that has a population-based registry for autism spectrum disorders. Whenever a health care provider, mental health professional, or educator diagnosis an individual with an autism spectrum disorder, they are required by state law to report certain information to the health department. As a result, it is possible for Katherine to know the number of newly diagnosed cases of autism spectrum disorder during a particular year. That is, Katherine knows the annual ____ of autism spectrum disorders in her state.a. incidence49. Katherine lives in a state that has a population-based registry for autism spectrum disorders. Whenever a health care provider, mental health professional, or educator diagnosis an individual with an autism spectrum disorder, they are required by state law to report certain information to the health department. When the registry first began, the same individuals were required to report all individuals they provided care or other services to who had autism spectrum disorders, regardless of when the diagnoses were made. As a result, it is possible for Katherine to know the total number of individuals in her state who have been diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders. That is, Katherine knows the ____ of autism spectrum disorders in her state.b. prevalence50. The fact that autism is more frequently diagnosed in recent years than it was in past years is an example of a(n) ____ effect.b. cohort51. Who is the MOST likely to seek treatment?b. Lillyan, an affluent 32-year-old Caucasian woman living in an urban area52. Raquel has been diagnosed with major depressive disorder and a substance use disorder. This is an example ofc. comorbidity.53. Mental disorders are _____ cause of disability worldwide.c. the leading54. An individual or environmental characteristic that precedes a mental disorder and is correlated with that disorder is calledb. a risk factor.55. Some risk factors, such as ____, are "fixed."b. family history56. Some risk factors, such as ____, are dynamic and can change over time.a. social support57. Individuals who ____ are at increased risk of substance use disorders.a. have not completed high school58. A childhood history of severe sexual abuse is more common in people with ____ personality disorder than those without the disorder.c. borderline59. Because of the unchanging nature of some risk factors such as gender or family history of a disorder, these risk factors are referred to asd. fixed.60. Men are more likely than women to developd. substance use disorders.61. Risk factors must ____ the development of the condition of interest.a. precede62. The primary reason women have a higher risk of Alzheimer's disease than men is that womena. live longer than men.63. Studies indicate that ____ to have more than one mental disorder any point in time.b. women are more likely than men64. Suicide is a leading cause of death ford. 15- to 24-year-olds.65. The explanation offered by your textbook for the high rate of suicide attempts in college students isd. stress.66. Men are at greater risk than women forb. antisocial personality disorder67. Early onset of a disorder is related toa. a poorer chance for recovery.68. Which statement about racial and ethnic differences in the prevalence of mental disorders is most accurate?d. We cannot yet conclude that race and ethnicity are general risk factors for mental disorder.69. Rates of post-traumatic stress disorder tend to be highest amonga. African Americans70. Which statement about the relationship between race/ethnicity and mental disorders is most accurate?a. Race and ethnicity are inconsistently related to mental disorders.71. In summarizing sociodemographic risk factors, we can conclude that people generally fare better if they ared. educated, gainfully employed, and married.72. The prevalence of mental disorder is highest amonga. divorced women.73. Genetic predisposition, low birth weight, neuropsychological deficits, language disabilities, and child maltreatment are all examples ofc. individual risk factors.74. Individuals who are ____ are more likely to develop psychological disorders than those who are ____.a. unemployed; employed75. Risk factors can be categorized asa. individual, family, and community76. Severe marital discord, large family size, paternal criminality, and maternal mental disorder are all examples ofb. family risk factors.77. Violence, poverty, racism, sexism, and discrimination are all examples ofd. social risk factors.78. Protective factors are associated with ____ risk of mental disorder.b. decreased79. Individuals with strong support from friends and family are ____ to develop depression than those with ____ social support.a. less likely; poor80. Sylvia has been through some personal hard times recently but seems to be coping and doing quite well. If her outward positive behavior is an accurate expression of her true mental state, thenc. she has likely had social support and an inherent positive attitude.81. People with the lowest lifetime and one-year prevalence rates of mental disorder arec. happily married.82. Having a positive temperament, above average intelligence, and social confidence are examples of ____ protective factors.a. individual83. A smaller family size, supportive relationships with parents, good sibling relationships, and adequate monitoring and rule setting by parents are examples of ____ protective factors.b. family84. A commitment to schools, availability of health and social services, and social cohesion are examples of ____ protective factors.c. community85. Research suggests that, for African Americans, religiosityd. seems to reduce the likelihood of mental disorder.86. The ability to withstand or rise above extreme adversity is known asc. resilience.87. Cedric's home was severely damaged in Hurricane Sandy. In spite of losing nearly all of his possessions, Cedric's difficulties in functioning have been minimal. This was true immediately after the storm and has remained true even now, more than 10 years later. Cedric is showing which pattern of disruption in functioning?d. resilience88. Having good social and academic competence and effectiveness in work and play situations are key factors for resilience ina. children.89. Resilience was originally studied in children of parents witha. schizophrenia.90. Key resiliency factors among children includea. good social competence.91. Maria did very well immediately after she lost her home in a flash flood. She kept very busy taking care of everything that needed to be done. However, several weeks later, after she has gotten some things in place, she began experiencing severe anxiety and depression. Maria is manifesting a ____ pattern of disruption.b. delayed92. Angela has never recovered from the death of her husband and two of her three children in a terrible automobile accident 10 years ago. In fact, she began drinking heavily, became homeless, lost custody of her remaining child, and has been in and out of treatment centers and jail since the accident until now. Angela is showing the ____ pattern of disruption of function.a. chronic93. Religiosity is highest amonga. African Americans.94. Buffers against adverse circumstances includea. strong bonds with family members.95. Thwarting the development of later problems is referred to asd. prevention.96. Research on femicide suggests thatb. unemployment, drug abuse, and gun access are influential measures.97. What factors distinguish between abusers who do not kill their female victims and those who do?a. Previous arrest of the perpetrator for domestic violence reduces the risk of femicide.98. Protective factors that reduce the risk of femicide includea. never living together99. Prevention programs often use a strategy ofb. identifying people at risk who lack protective factors.100. The Peterson and Brown (1994) prevention of child abuse plan has a focus onc. problem-solving, positive parenting, parenting skills, extended parenting, and anger management.101. In general, child abuse prevention programs should go beyond risk factors tod. enhancing protective factors.102. A sample treatment plan for preventing child maltreatment in high-risk families would likely includea. anger management education.103. Individuals in a child abuse prevention program who are learning ____ will develop skills such as how to define behaviors and goals, recognize developmentally appropriate goals, identify rewards, and identify reasonable level of control.c. parenting skills104. Individuals in a child abuse prevention program who are learning ____ skills will learn to see themselves through their child's eyes as they recall their own parents' responses to frustration and how it felt to bear the brunt of those reactions.b. anger management105. Prevention programs aim toc. enhance protective factors.106. The basis of ____ is to build mental health and limit the scope of problems before they worsen.a. prevention107. The idea of prevention as part of a continuum refers to the notion of addressingc. prevention, treatment, and maintenance.108. Prevention occurs before a disorder develops, while ____ occurs long after a disorder has developed.b. maintenance109. If a prevention plan is administered to a wide range of people, it would be consideredd. universal.110. When large groups of people not afflicted by a particular problem are targeted to reduce new cases of a disorder, ____ prevention has been utilized.a. universal111. Addressing problems while they are manageable and before they are more resistant to treatment is key to ____ prevention.b. secondary112. May 1 of each year is set aside as Nationala. Anxiety Disorders Screening Day.113. A program to find and help youth genetically predisposed schizophrenia would be an example of ____ prevention.d. selective114. A prevention program that targets a segment of people at higher risk of a given adverse outcome is referred to asd. selective.115. Selective prevention has been recommended especially forb. high-risk problems such as suicide116. Prevention practices that target individuals or subgroups of the population who are more likely than the general population to develop a particular disorder are key to ____ prevention.c. selective117. The goal of ____ prevention is to stabilize symptoms, provide rehabilitation, prevent relapse, improve a person's quality of life, and lessen effects of an existing mental disorder.c. tertiary118. What does tertiary prevention share something in common with primary and secondary prevention?a. It focuses on preventing other problems.119. A prevention strategy that targets individuals at high risk for developing extensive future problems is referred to asc. indicated prevention.120. Ariana has many of the risk factors for developing a major depressive disorder; however, she has not yet shown any symptoms of one. Even so, she has been pulled into a prevention program on her campus based on the fact that she has significant risk factors, and that she is far from home and lacks the social support that might protect her from developing depression. Ariana is in a(n) _____ prevention program.d. indicated121. A key advantage of prevention is thata. enormous amounts of resources can be saved.122. What focus does tertiary prevention programs share with primary and secondary prevention programs?c. attempting to reduce problems associated with a mental disorder on a community-wide basis123. Providing accurate information about how much alcohol is consumed by college students is a form ofb. social norming.124. Consuming five or more drinks for men on one occasion, or four or more for women on one occasion, is known as ____ drinking.d. binge125. Binge drinking on college campuses isc. of high-frequency and serious concern.126. With respect to alcohol use, social norming is a strategy developed to counteracta. one's misperceptions about how much others drink.127. The WRC's responsible decision-making program is administered by ____ who visit residence halls, fraternity and sorority houses, and classrooms to speak about making healthy choices.d. trained peer educators128. Which statement about alcohol use on college campuses is most accurate?b. Many groups and organizations have developed prevention programs.129. Binge drinking is associated witha. poorer academic performance.130. Megumi is a student at a large state university. As part of freshman orientation, all incoming students are taught the dangers of binge drinking, given information on how much alcohol is consumed by college students, and learn strategies for making responsible decisions with regard to the use of alcohol. Because the program is embedded in orientation for all new university students, it is an example of a(n) ____ prevention program.a. universal131. All other things being equal, who is most likely to be diagnosed with a serious mental disorder?c. Gregg, who has a family history of severe mental illness and who is experiencing significant personal stressors132. Lyndsay is a freshman in college. Her residence director puts on different programming each month. Around midterms, Lyndsay attends one of these programs, and receives information about how much alcohol is consumed by college students. She is surprised, as it is actually less than she had thought. Prior to the training, Lyndsay had felt odd, as if she wasn't keeping up with the level of drinking "expected" by college students, but now she realizes that she is less far from typical than she had believed. The training her residence director put on is a good example of the importance of _____ in prevention programs.d. social norming133. As part of a routine screening during annual exams, Dr. Lowry (a pediatrician) tries to identify adolescent girls at risk for developing an eating disorder. Girls who show up as "high risk" during this screening are referred to additional programming offered in his office that will help prevent development of a full-blown eating disorder. Dr. Lowry is engaged in _____ prevention.c. secondary134. In the long run, prevention programs are more cost-effective than ____ treatments.c. traditional135. Kim Dude was responsible for developing thea. Wellness Resource Center (WRC).136. The Wellness Resource Center uses ____ as guiding principles.d. responsible decision-making, social norming, harm reduction, and environmental management137. The WRC has created the CHEERS project, which providesc. designated drivers.​Ignacio calls a telephone hot line because he is thinking of harming himself. The telephone counselor asks him if he is married, if he has ever harmed himself before, and the stressors he faces. Why are these questions being asked?The counselor is assessing his lethality.A disturbing change in suicidal behavior is that women are now ____.​completing suicide more oftenResearchers attribute the link between alcohol and suicide to a condition that is characterized by a constriction of cognitive and perceptual processes and narrowing a person's focus on their personal problems. This explanation of the effects of alcohol on suicide is called ____.alcohol-induced myopiaSome clues of suicidal intent are direct, and some are indirect. Which of the following is an indirect clue?​A student giving away his treasured collection of CDsDr. Ethan says, "Suicide rates vary with occupation and income group. They also vary depending on the individual's relationship to and interaction with society." Dr. Ethan's remarks reflect which perspective on suicide?​socioculturalImagine that there are two organizations in a community, Help Inc. and Open Door. Help Inc. is available to everyone in the community through a telephone contact. Callers are trained to assess suicidal callers. Open Door has a team of mental health professionals in a clinic where short-term help is given to those who are in immediate danger of suicide. Which description is accurate?​​Help Inc. is a suicide prevention center.Providing intensive short-term help to assist potential suicide victims in resolving a life crisis is the aim of ____.​crisis interventionHoney makes daily threats that she is going to kill herself and she has had made several unsuccessful attempts. Mental health professionals who work with suicidal clients know that ____.​Honey's threats should be taken seriously​Statistically, who is at greatest risk for committing suicide?Stuart, a 65-year-old white male"I'd make everyone happier if I just shot myself" is an example of a ____; revising one's will and giving away one's record collection are examples of ____verbal clue of suicide; behavioral clues of suicideWhich statement is accurate?Most people who attempt suicide are ambivalent about dying.Research investigating the role of gender in suicide has found that ____.​men tend to choose more lethal forms of suicideOf the following groups of elderly men, which is at highest risk for suicide?Chinese who have just arrived in the United StatesSuicide should be discussed separately from depression because ____.​there are many causes of suicide, and it may represent a separate clinical entityDr. Charon, a sociologist, is likely to find the lowest rates of suicide among people who are ____.​marriedA schizophrenic who commits suicide is most likely experiencing episode of depression"Suicidal ideation" refers to ____.​​thoughts about suicideWhat problem is associated with studying people who survive their suicide to understand the reasons for why a person commits suicide?​People who survive suicide attempts differ from those who are successful in their attempt.When it comes to suicidal behavior, men are more likely than women to ____.​​actually kill themselvesWhich professional would be most likely to commit suicide?​​A psychiatristOne of the most common characteristics of suicide is ____.​to seek a solution to an unsolvable problemDr. Elmer is interviewing the friends, family, and therapist of a person who committed suicide so that she can better understand the reasons for suicide. This assessment is ____.​​called a psychological autopsyWhich psychological state of mind is most predictive of suicidal behavior?​depression​What is the usual sequence of help in crisis intervention?First, the client is helped to resolve the immediate crisis, and then traditional therapy is offered.Research on college student suicide indicates that ____More than 50% of college students report suicidal thoughtsEarly warning signs of suicide include ____expressions of guilty feelingsMental health professionals believe that potential suicide victims ____.​are ambivalent about wanting to kill themselvesA friend of yours says, "I heard that suicide is correlated to depression and feeling hopeless. However, those who those who commit suicide rarely suffer from a mental disorder or abuse substances. In fact, when people are at the depths of depression, they are most likely to commit suicide." Which portion of your friend's statement is accurate?​Suicide is correlated to depression and feeling hopeless.Of the following countries, which has the highest suicide rate?​HungaryRachel is studying suicide. She is surprised to learn that historically, people avoided talking about suicide because of the ____.shame and stigma involved in taking one's lifeBased on research, which teenager is at greatest risk for completing a suicide?​Sam, who is the family scapegoatWhich type of intervention has been established in local communities to help potentially suicidal individuals who are in acute distress but are not being formally treated?​suicide prevention centersA psychologist who is asked to assess patients' lethality is being asked to find out ____.​the probability that they will choose to end their livesA suicide prevention program in San Francisco, where there is a large Asian American population, would target efforts at ____.​elderly men who have just arrived in the United States​When working with a patient who is potentially suicidal, Dr. Gold uses a common three-step process. This would include which of the following?​determining the degree of probability that the person will act on the suicidal wishWhich of the following is among the six common characteristics of suicide?​Suicide is a way to end intolerable psychological pain.Which of the following is accurate about people who attempt suicide?​Alcohol increases suicidality by decreasing inhibitory control.When children and adolescents mimic a previous suicide or imitate the suicide of a celebrity or close friend, this is considered a ____.​"copy cat" suicideSuppose that five years from now, there is a blood test that assesses the likelihood of a person's committing suicide. It is likely that this test will measure the blood levels of ____.​SerotoninHigh-intensity assessment and treatment during which professionals take charge of the suicidal individual's personal, social, and professional life outside the psychiatric facility characterize ____.crisis intervention workNorman, a 71-year-old white widower, is very depressed. He still lives in the small town that he grew up in and attends church every Sunday. He also attends many other regular social activities during the week. What statement regarding Norman's susceptibility to suicide is most accurate?​The fact that Norman is an elderly, white, depressed male puts him in a high-risk group, but his social support system is a positive sign.Postmortem studies on individual who committed suicide have revealed alterations in an area of the brain. Which area of the brain is showing unique DNA alterations?​hippocampusKyoko is a well-trained suicide prevention hot line worker. She would ____.​always want to establish a good relationship with a suicidal calleralways want to establish a good relationship with a suicidal caller2 to 9 times"In my view, suicide is related to the impact of sociocultural factors on a person." Who is most likely to have made this statement?​Emile Durkheim