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40 terms

Chem Chapters 5 & 6

STUDY
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solute
what is being dissolved
solvent
thing dissolving the solute (ie- water)
solution
homogeneous mixture of solvent and solute
concentration
amount of solute relative to solvent solution
saturated solution
solution that contains maximum amount of solute
solubility
amount of solute required to give a saturated solution
precipitant
solid that forms in solution
precipitation reaction
reaction that produces precipitant
electrolytes
substance that dissolves in water to produce ions and therefore conduct electricity
ionic compounds and few molecular compounds are...
electrolytes
non-electrolyte
opposite of electrolyte (substance that does NOT dissolve in water to produce ions and DOES NOT conduct electricity)
examples of non-electrolytes
molecular compounds (except HCl, HBr, etc)
strong electrolyte
substance dissociates in water to LARGE extent
weak electrolyte
substance dissociates in water to a LIMITED extent (ex- HF, CH3CO2H)
Steps to writing a net ionic equation
1. determine the products, 2. balance equation, 3. determine if you have a precipitant
Acids (according to Arrhenius)
dissociates in water to produce H+ reacts with water to produce H3O+ (hydronium ion)
Base (according to Arrhenius)
dissociates in water to produce OH-
strong acids and strong bases
have strong electrolytes
examples of strong acids
H2SO4, HCl, HBr, HNO3
examples of strong bases
NaOH, COH, Ca(OH)2
examples of weak acids
H3PO4, HF, CH3CO2H
examples of weak bases
NH3
naming for binary acids
hydrogen + element
example of binary acid nomenclature: HCl
hydro chloric acid
naming for exoacids
hydrogen, oxygen, and element (name based on polyatomic ion)
formula for Molarity (M)
M = (moles of solute in moles) / (volume of solution in L)
dilution of solutions formula
McVc = MolVol
solubility rules for soluble compounds #1
all compounds of group 1A are soluble
solubility rules for soluble compounds #2
all salts containing NH4+, NO3 -, ClO4 -, ClO3 - , and C2H3O2 - are SOLUBLE
solubility rules for soluble compounds #3
all salts containing Cl-, Br-, and I- are soluble EXCEPT when combined with Pb^ 2+, Hg2^ 2+, and Ag +
solubility rules for soluble compounds #4
all salts containing SO4^ 2- are soluble except those containing Pb^ 2+, Ca^ 2+, Sr^ 2+, Hg2^ 2+, and Ba^ 2+
solubility rules for insoluble compounds #1
all metal hydroxides and all metal oxides are insoluble except those of group 1A and those of Ca^ 2+, Sr^ 2+, and Ba^ 2+
solubility rules for insoluble compounds #2
all salts containing PO4^ 3-, CO3^ 2-, SO3^ 2-, and S^ 2- are INSOLUBLE exxcept those of group 1A and NH4 +
Chapter 6
Oxidation-reaction Reactions (Redox)
oxidation
loss of electrons
reduction
gain of electrons
redox reaction
involves both oxidation and reduction and transfer of electrons
oxidizing agent
species that gets reduced
reducing agent
species that gets added to (opposite of oxidizing agent)
oxidizing number
way of indicating whether an atom is electron rich, poor, or neutral