Criminal Interrogation and Confessions
Terms in this set (107)
Who are the authors of the book?
Fred E. Inbau, John E. Reid, Joseph P. Buckley, Brian C. Jayne
What department did John E. Reid join during the great depression?
Where was Fred Inbau a professor at?
Northwest Law School
What date was the Valentine's Day Massacre?
February 14, 1929
What is considered the greatest single advancement in the polygraph technique?
The control question
What year did Reid start his own firm?
A _____ is a free-flowing nonaccusatory meeting or discussion used to gather information
A _______ is an accusational interaction with a suspect, conducted in a controlled environment, designed to persuade the suspect to tell the truth
An interview is _________.
________ is not indicating wrongdoing; not blaming or accusing.
The purpose of an interview is to _______ information.
An interview may be conducted ____ during an investigation.
An ______ may be conducted early during an investigation.
Interviews are ________ and relatively unstructured.
The investigator should make ____ _____ during a formal interview.
A _______ ________is an environment that is private and free from distractions.
It is much easier to lie in response to questions that are asked in a rapid-fire manner.
The purpose of an interrogation is to learn the ______.
An interrogation is conducted only when the investigator is reasonably certain of the suspect's ______.
The investigator should not take any ______until after the suspect has told the truth and is fully committed to a position
This is a psychological advantage for the investigator to conduct a nonaccusatory interview before the accusatory interrogation.
An interview may be conducted in a variety of _______.
An interrogation involves ____ ______.
_____ _____ is information from a variety of sources that is used by an investigator to gain a solid background about a case before conducting an interview or interrogation
_______ _______ is the ability to identify from factual information the probable motivation for a crime, unique access requirements, window of time during which the crime was committed, and propensity characteristics of the person who committed the crime.
_______ is the person who actually conducts the interview and possible interrogation of a suspect
A _______ is any person who provides information about a case
_______ is information withheld from the suspects and media that is used to verify a guilty person's confession
The victim should be the first person interviewed if the crime involves a living victim.
A physician's estimate of the time of death of the victim or of the time when the fatal wound was inflicted can be relied upon.
When circumstantial evidence or physical evidence points toward a particular person, that person is usually the one that committed the offense.
At the outset of the investigation certain information about the crime should be withheld from the media and all suspects to provide dependent corroboration of any subsequent confession.
The investigator should first interview those suspects that are more likely to be guilty and work toward the suspects who are less likely to be guilty.
In appropriate situations, encourage the person relating the details of a case to sketch the place of the occurrence and to note on it any relevant details
When interviewing a person regarding the facts of a case, never ask what he believes may have happened, who he believes to be the chief suspect and why
You should regard cautiously the reliability of information submitted by a paid informer
During an interview with the presumed victim or other reporter of a crime that involves money or property rather than physical offense, a skillful investigator may ascertain that no crime was in fact committed
When speaking with a child victim of a sex offense involving a stranger who should never ask them to describe the scene of the occurrence.
False (ask them to describe the scene)
Phrase added to a response to weaken it.
Qualified Response (Chapter 7)
One type of qualifying phrase used to respond truthfully but deceptively to a question about a particular point in time. These statements often begin with phrases such as "As a rule.." or "Generally.."
A type of qualifying phrase that blames a poor memory in order to bend a response in the subject's favor. "As far as I recall..." or "At this point in time..."
Qualifying phrase indicating that the subject is omitting part of his answer within his response. "Harldy ever.." or "Not often..."
Phrase that tells the investigator that the subject is providing an estimation, rather than an exact statement. "I would have to say..."
Statement that decreases anxiety by alerting the investigator to the true intent behind a statment. "As crazy as it sounds..."
Statement against self-interest
A statement that reflects the truth, and therefore, does not cause any internal anxiety as a result of deception.
A response that may consist of nonverbal answer that accepts physical responsibility for an act but denies criminal intentions. (Shakes head, "no")
A response that implies innocence without stating it. "Why would I do something like that?"
Evasive Response Chapter 7
A response that is with the greatest level of internal anxiety. "No, I did not."
Open-ended questions that 1) are designed to elicit further information within a section of the account, 2) seek an explanationfor events, or 3) develop information about the subject's feelings or thoughts.
Usually closed questions asked to elicit a specific position or answer from the subject.
A response that does not offer a definitve answer to a direct question.
Evasive response Chapter 6
A question that is specifically directed at some aspect of the subjects original response and it instrumental in clarifying a subject's behavior.
A technique used by investigators to encourage a full response to the intial open question.
A question asked by the investigator to clarify the subject's position when qualifiers are used by the subject in a response. "Is it possible.."
Hypothetical follow-up question
Phrases that require the listener to make assumptions about what probably happened.
Word(s) that express uncertainty when a person is recalling past events.
A question that expects agreement with an implication contained within the question.
A question that calls for a narrative response.
A response that contains words or phrases that decrease the level of personal commitment or confidence within the subject's response.
A questioning error that involves the investigator asking a direct question and then continuing to talk, perhaps by suggesting possible responses to the question or clarifying questions.
Phrases that indicate omissions in the account of an event (eg "Before I knew it...") and help direct the invesitagot's attention to a portion of an account that requires clarification.
A response based on an earlier communication in order to avoid lying.
Lying by referral
Using a response that is offered as a list of possibilities. "Well, number one..."
The length of time between the last word of the interviewer's question and the first word of the subject's response.
A behavior symptom indicative of truthfulness where a response is delivered in staccato fashion, emphasizing each word. "I/ DID/ NOT/ DO/ IT!"
A significant paralinguistic behavior of deception, in which the subject begins a response in one direction but abruptly stops it and starts over again in a different direction. "I never even..I did not see him."
Paralinguistic behavior that has the effect of "erasing" the implied connotation of the statement.
Putting the hands in contact with some part of the body.
A gesture, which may involve the hand coming in contact with the body, that reflects the subjects own unique nonverbal manner of relieving anxiety.
Adaptor behavior involving gestures that bring the hand into contact with the face.
Protective or supporting gestures
The investigator directly and positively confronts the suspect.
The investigator introduces an interrogation theme.
The investigator handles the initial denials of guilt.
The investigator overcomes the suspect's objections.
The investigator gets and retains the suspect's attention and clearly displays sincerity in what he says.
The investigator uses an alternative question--a suggestion of a choice to be made by the suspect concerning some aspect of the crime.
The investigator recognizes the suspect's passive mood.
The investigator has the suspect orally relate the various details of the offense that will serve ultimately to establish legal guilt.
The verbal confession is converted into a written or recorded statement.
Being silent or relatively uncommunicative execpt for a few brif comments.
Reactions exhibiting anger and rudeness; insolence.
Allow the suspect to sit in the interview room alone for about 5 minutes.
Statement that offers a reason for the interrogation other than eliciting a confession.
A period of intentional silence that follows the direct, positive confrontation and lasts about 3-5 seconds.
Third person theme
A real or fictitious event about the interrogator, friend, or other case depicting a similar type of crime and the extenuating circumstances that led to that act.
A statement or action that contradicts or refuses to accept the truthfulness of an allegation.
Universally recognized social signal often employed by deceptive suspects to let a speaker know, "Hey, its my turn to talk. I have something to say!"
Phrase used to ask permission to speak that may preface a denial.
Other verbal statment that often preceded a deceptive denial such as "But honestly," "please"
A statement that is proposed by the suspect as an excuse or reason why the accusation is false.
Phrase used as a prelude to the voicing of an objection.
A type of objection. "I'd be too scared to do something like that." or "I loved her."
A type of objection. "I don't even own a gun." "I wasn't there that day."
A type of objection. "I wasn't brought up that way." "A person who would do something like this is really sick."
A vehicle by which the investigator sidesteps the objection. It actually does not mean anything, but it creates the impression that the investigator is encouraged by the suspect's statement, which is the opposite effect from that which the suspect anticipated when he offered the objection.
Point at which the suspect is mentally debating whether or not to tell the truth.
Crying as a ploy or as a final, yet sincere, effort to gain sympathy.
A question that offers the suspect two incrimination choices concerning some aspect of the crime.
A question that is based on the where, when, or how of an act or event pertinent to the crime under investigation, but yet is removed in point of time or place from the main occurrence itself.
Positive Supporting Statement
A statment discussing the desirable side of the alternative question to encourage the suspect to select that side.
Negative Supporting Statement
Statement that paints a disturbing picture of the suspect if the negative alternative is true.
A question phrased in such a way as to expect agreement.
Statement of Reinforcement
Statement that encourages the suspect to continue beyond the acceptance and commit himself to a discussion of the details of the crime.
Facts that would be known only by the guilty person.
Information about a crime learned from the suspect's confession that is verified as true after the confession.
Witness's Confirmatory Questions
Questions posed by the witness to have the suspect actually verbalize to the witness what has already been told to the investigator.
Personal History Question
Question calling for answers known only to the offender.