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ARCH 250 Klein Exam 2
Terms in this set (110)
Eastern Roman Empire, began with the foundation of Constantinople and ended with its capture by the Ottoman Turks (324-1453 CE)
Common Byzantine church plan consisting of a large central domed square
vertical wall constructed on a circular or polygonal plan, usually carrying a dome and pierced with windows
smooth, triangular, distorted supports rising up from the ground to the four corners of a dome
a half-cylinder vault with a smooth underside
patterned surface consisting of regular shapes of glass, pottery, marble, etc. embedded in a cement or plaster matrix
What do we mean by Byzantine art and architecture? Where and when does it begin?
work tied by patronage or tradition to Constantinople
begins 324 CE
Why was the church of Hagia Sophia in Constantinople so famous? Who were the architects of the building?
its large scale central plan was revolutionary at the time, the dome seemed to be "suspended from the heavens"
Anthemius of Tralles, Isidorus of Miletus
San Marco (St. Mark)
Describe the plan, elevation, and decoration of San Marco: how does it reflect the influence of the Haghia Sophia?
one large central dome surrounded by windows and flanked by smaller domes on each side
cross plan church
What was the motivation for building San Marco?
Ordered by the doge when Venetian merchants stole the supposed relics of Mark the Evangelist
Explain how the architecture and decoration of St. Sophia in Kiev reflects Byzantine forms.
cross in square plan
large central dome surrounded by windows
Why would Byzantine art and architecture be found in Ukraine in the 11th century?
Ukraine was under the control of the Byzantine empire at the time
Church of the Raising of Lazarus (originally part of Muromansky Monastery)
Why is wood the logical choice for building in Russia?
wood lasts hundreds of years and is an abundant material in Russia
What are some of the techniques used to select wood and to build churches that ensure a structure that will last hundreds of years?
large logs resist rot, used for bottom sections
birch bark used as flashing
aspen is used for shingles, it weather to a smooth silvery color
What role does the exterior dome play in the Russian churches?
the exterior dome denotes to the citizens that the building functions as a church
Church of the Transfiguration
reverse curve gables
Who was the patron of the Church of the Transfiguration at Kizhi and what event does the church commemorate?
built by Peter the Great to commemorate his victory over the Swedes
What debt does the architecture of the Church of the Transfiguration owe to Byzantine forms and what is a new development?
cross plan and elaborate use of domes
octagonal shape and bochki
St. Basil (Cathedral of the Intercession on the Moat)
What historical events led to the construction of St. Basil's?
commemorates the capture of Kazan and Astrakhan
How does the design of St. Basil's combine the traditions of wooden churches with masonry construction?
the use of the tent roof to accommodate large congregations
tall, slender prayer tower usually attached to a mosque
arcaded central courtyard located within a mosque
covered prayer call in a mosque complex
niche within a haram indicating the direction of Mecca for prayer
wall in which the mihrab is located
Muslim house of prayer orientated towards Mecca
usually consisting of shops or stalls in alleys, roofed over
Islamic theological and legal place of instruction
usually with a court with iwan, dormitories, and study cells
What is the purpose of a mosque and what are some of the architectural requirements for its design?
Muslim house of prayer
requires a covered hall orientated towards Mecca & place to wash
How does the city of Isfahan grow under the patronage of Safavid rulers? What are some of the buildings they added to the city?
Describe the form and purpose of the Madar-i Shah Madrasa (Madrasa of the Shah's Mother in Isfahan).
Iwan Mosque design, two-story arcade, paradise garden
Bibi Khanum Mosque
Who built the Bibi Khanum Mosque?
How is the iwan used to define space and indicate direction in a mosque?
one main iwan facing Mecca
Congregational or Friday Mosque (Masjid-i-jami)
a small pointed niche constructed using a corbeled design
sometimes functional, sometimes purely aesthetic
How would you describe the plan of the Masjid-i-jami?
a large colonnaded structure with a sahn containing four iwans in the center
What are some of the materials used in the Masjid-i-jami's structure and decoration?
wood roof and domes
glazed tiles and bricks
What are some of the reasons that UNESCO designated this building an important cultural resource?
its plan shows the history and evolution of mosque structure design
first four iwan mosque
Middle-Eastern public bathhouse
a place of refuge for caravans and traveling merchants
notable sultan of the Ottoman Empire
famous royal architect and engineer
a complex of buildings surrounding a mosque
a roofed building used as a tomb
Who were the patron and architect of the Sehzade Mosque? Why was it built?
constructed as a mausoleum for his son
How does the design of the central dome mosque draw inspiration from the Haghia Sophia?
large central dome with four smaller ones on each side
What are some of the different buildings that accompany the Sehzade Mosque?
madrasas, dorms, kitchens, graveyard and mausoleum
Mosque of Süleyman the Magnificent
Who were the patron and architect of the Mosque of Süleyman? Why was it built?
Sultan Süleyman, Sinan
Hammam of Hürrem Sultan
Who paid for the construction of the Hammam of Hürrem Sultan? Who was the architect?
Hürrem Sultan, Sinan
Describe the layout of a public bath, such as the Hammam Hürrem Sultan. What benefits does a bath offer to residents? Why are they important in an urban setting?
-4 main rooms, separate entrances on either side for men and women
-first rooms are for changing, inner rooms for bathing
-provides citizens with a place to socialize as well as take care of themselves
Mughal emperor who built the Fatehpur Sikri
Shah Jahan (1627-1658)
Mughal emperor, patron of the Taj Mahal
What are some of the forms of decoration found in the architecture of Islamic South Asia? How does this compare to what we have seen in Spain and Istanbul?
The Alhambra Palace
Who built the Alhambra complex? What happened in 1492?
How is the open court used as a design principle in the Alhambra? What is the purpose of having gardens and water in a palace and what do they represent?
-two outdoor courtyards with water features and gardens
-exhibits luxury of access to water
-creates a space for people to speak privately
What are some of the forms of decoration and design principles typical of the Islamic world found in the Alhambra?
courtyards, units, water, symmetry, muqarnas
Quwwat al-Islam Mosque (Might of Islam)
Why does the Might of Islam Mosque have so many re-used architectural elements in its structure? What message do they send to visitors?
re-used elements are collected from conquered areas
serve as trophies to show visitors the expanse of their triumph
When was the Iron Pillar originally made and for what purpose? Why is it in India?
-Made to hold a statue of a Hindu god
-used now as a trophy
Friday mosque and gateway
Tomb of Salim Christi
ca. 1568-ca. 1580
Who is the Mughal emperor who built the Fatehpur Sikri?
built in celebration of his son's birth
What are some of the buildings preserved at Fatehpur Sikri?
How does the gateway of the Friday mosque combine traditional mosque design with decorative elements of Mughal architecture?
Who was Salim Christi and why was he buried here? What are some architectural characteristics of his mausoleum?
Who built the Taj Mahal and why?
built as a mausoleum for his wife
How is the idea of the Paradise Garden incorporated into the design of the Taj Mahal? Why is it doubly symbolic?
What materials were used in the Taj Mahal complex and the main buildings?
a Chinese belief that vital currents present within the earth can influence the quality of human life, and so should be taken into account when designing living spaces
Kao Gong Ji
Yuan Dynasty (1279-1368)
built the Forbidden City in Beijing
Ming Dynasty (1368-1644)
built the majority of the Great Wall
What are the three main part of a traditional Chinese building?
jian, veranda, courtyard
What are the four principles that guide the organization of space in Chinese building complexes?
What are the basic elements of a classical Chinese city as laid out in the Kao Gong Ji?
square shapes, 3 gates, 9 avenues in each of the four directions, walls
Who built the Great Wall of China and why?
defend the northern border
single unit in Chinese layout design
a layout disposed symmetrically about an axis
What are the principles that guide the plan and layout of a courtyard house? How does the location and orientation of the rooms inform us about who used it?
-elders are most important
-succession of buildings puts the bedrooms in order of least to most importance
Hall of Supreme Harmony
Forbidden City, Beijing, China
What was the Hall of Supreme Harmony used for?
What are some of the architectural, decorative, and spatial characteristics of the Hall of Supreme Harmony that reveal its importance?
-large scale to indicate importance
-on a central axis
-themes of 3
Temple of Heaven
What was the purpose of the Temple of Heaven complex?
What are some of the architectural, decorative, and spatial characteristics of the Temple for Prayer that are similar to the Hall of Supreme Harmony and reveal its importance?
Japanese rural house
Japanese rice-straw mats
Japanese sliding screens
Japanese screens with paper panels
Describe the materials and techniques used to build a minka. How is the design of this structure suited to its purpose and the climate of Japan?
-wood, thatched roof and tile, stucco
-insulation and large thatched roof built to withstand Japan's cold winter climate
Himeji ("Egret's") Castle
Katsura Imperial Villa and Tea Houses
Who built Egret's Castle? What was its purpose?
What are some of the defensive features in Egret's Castle that are also found in medieval European castles?
walls, moat, high placement, towers and windows for archers
Who built the Katsura Imperial Villa complex and what is its purpose?
built as a retreat for the Hachijonomiya family
How does the Katsura Imperial Villa combine the built and natural environments?
buildings blend in to the landscape
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