MCQ 30

Several infants in the neonatal ward of a hospital show symptoms including red, inflamed skin with peeling of the epidermal layer. They are likely infected with . . .

A. Pseudomonas aeruginosa
B. Streptococcus pyogenes
C. Sporothrix schenckii
D. Staphylococcus aureus
E. Rubeola virus
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A 30-year-old patient presents to a clinic with heart arrhythmia and joint pain. A few weeks previously, while camping in the Maine woods, he had noticed an unusual rash "like a bulls' eye" that had gone away. How had he likely become infected?

A. by eating contaminated food
B. by the bite of a small tick
C. by drinking water contaminated with rodent urine
D. through skin puncture or abrasion
E. by inhaling fungal spores in an aerosol of dry leaves
The causative agent of tetanus is an AB toxin. Which of the following is true about it?

A. The A part binds to neurons.
B. The B part binds to lung epithelial cells.
C. The A part inhibits release of a neuroinhibitor.
D. The B part ADP-ribosylates a host cell protein.
E. It can be inactivated with an antibiotic.
Which of the following is NOT true of the chickenpox virus?

A. It is very serious if acquired by a fetus.
B. It can be spread even before the rash develops.
C. Once infected, the host retains the virus for her whole life.
D. There is an effective vaccine against it.
E. The spots in the rash all look the same a week after the onset of the disease.
What would be the most apparent way to distinguish rubeola from rubella?

A. Rubella is a respiratory disease
B. White spots are present in the lining of the mouth in cases of rubeola
C. Rubella has a much more prominent rash
D. Jaundice is present in cases of rubeola
E. Patients with rubella have a much higher fever
Which of the following could best be described as an opportunistic pathogen with high levels of R-plasmid-mediated antibiotic resistance whose biofilms colonize patients with a weakened innate immune system?

A. Streptococcus pyogenes
B. Clostridium tetani
C. Borrelia burgdorferi
D. Pseudomonas aeruginosa
E. Human Papillomavirus
The Varicella-Zoster virus . . .

A. remains dormant in nerve tissue and re-erupts after many years.
B. may cause encephalitis and pneumonia in addition to swollen parotid glands.
C. is the main cause of genital herpes.
D. causes an infection that can be treated with tetracycline.
E. can form a granuloma and break out to spread to other organs
Rapidly spreading abscess and lymphatic swelling after a dog or cat bite would most likely be caused by . . . A. Bartonella B. Rubeola C. Rubella D. Pasteurella E. VaricellaD. PasteurellaOccasionally fatal virus transmitted by respiratory droplets and identified by a characteristic rash, which includes spots on the oral mucosa. The virus can multiply in T cells, and most of the fatality is due to secondary infections in the T-cell-suppressed host. A. Bartonella B. Rubeola C. Rubella D. Pasteurella E. VaricellaB. RubeolaA patient developed a roughened circular patch of skin on his face after playing with a cat. What infection would you suspect? A. Sporotrichosis B. Lyme disease C. Cat-scratch fever D. Coccioidomycosis E. RingwormE. RingwormInfection with Pseudomonas is best treated preventatively. It is very difficult to treat once an infection has already occurred. Why? A. It is Gram positive, but most antibiotics only treat Gram negative infections. B. It is highly invasive, spreading throughout the body very rapidly. C. It forms biofilms, which are very difficult to treat with antibiotics. D. It lives inside macrophages, where antibiotics cannot penetrate. E. They type of patients it infects are not able to tolerate most antibioticsC. It forms biofilms, which are very difficult to treat with antibiotics.A patient presents himself to a clinic in Connecticut with a concentric, "bulls' eye" rash, muscle aches and low-grade fever. What symptoms would likely be in this patient's future? A. Acute glomerulonephritis B. Cirrhosis and liver cancer C. Heart arrhythmia and joint pains D. Disfiguring tissue granulomas E. Tissue death and gangreneC. Heart arrhythmia and joint painsA 9-year-old boy has a cough, fever, and runny nose. He also has a fine, macular rash and small white spots in his mouth. What is the danger from this disease? A. Damage to his T-cells may lead to serious secondary infections. B. The rash might spread to internal organs, causing organ failure and DIC. C. The causative virus is latent, and may recur later as a more serious disease. D. Antibodies he makes against the causative bacterium might be responsible for autoimmune sequelae. E. If his mother is pregnant, his unborn sibling may develop congenital abnormalitiesA. Damage to his T-cells may lead to serious secondary infections.The Latin word tinea means "moth-like," referring to the roughened patches of skin associated with this type of disease. The disease is caused by a ______________ that has _____________ as one of its main virulence factors. A. bacterium ; an AB toxin B. fungus ; dimorphism C. virus ; syncytial formation D. fungus ; keratinase E. bacterium ; coagulaseD. fungus ; keratinaseWhat do tetanus and gangrene have in common? A. They are both caused by A-B neurotoxins. B. They both require anaerobic conditions for the bacteria to grow. C. They have very similar symptoms, including tissue necrosis. D. Both are generally treated by amputation of the affected body part. E. There is an effective vaccine for both of themB. They both require anaerobic conditions for the bacteria to grow.A wart such as the one shown at the right is caused by a . . . A. virus B. systemic fungus C. dermatophytic fungus D. spore-forming bacterium E. protozoanA. virus"German" Measles and Measles infections are mostly different, but there are some similarities. Which of the following is similar between these two viruses? A. They are both transmitted by respiratory droplets. B. They both replicate in T cells, reducing the body's ability to fight off other infections. C. They are both associated with a congenital syndrome if they infect a fetus. D. They are both in the same viral group (Rubella viruses). E. Both are associated with small white spots at the site where the virus enters the body.A. They are both transmitted by respiratory droplets.A baby develops a thick white growth in his mouth and on his tongue. What microbial agent is probably responsible for this? A. Papillomavirus B. Staphylococcus aureus C. Corynebacterium diphtheriae D. Varicella-Zoster Virus E. Candida albicansE. Candida albicansA woman who had shaved only her lower legs all winter decided to shave her thighs to prepare for summer. A few days later she developed small red bumps all over her thighs. What is likely the cause? A. Streptococcal erysipelas B. Recurrence of Zoster from a previous Chickenpox infection C. A shaving cut has become infected with necrotizing fasciitis. D. Streptococcal or Staphylococcal impetigo E. Staphylococcal folliculitisE. Staphylococcal folliculitisInfections with which of these organisms are most associated with biofilm formation? A. Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae B. Streptococcus pneumoniae and Clostridium perfringens C. Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa D. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcus pneumoniae E. Streptococcus pyogenes and Sporothrix schenckiiC. Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosaThe most serious symptoms of Lyme disease are caused by . . . A. antibodies made against the bacterium that causes the disease B. a bacterial AB toxin that interferes with cAMP balance C. production of gas in tissues, which cuts off the blood supply and causes ischemia D. granuloma formation in the lung and other tissues E. a hyaluronidase toxin that inhibits host cell protein synthesisA. antibodies made against the bacterium that causes the diseaseThe Latin word 'tinea' means "moth-like," referring to the roughened patches of skin associated with this type of disease. The disease is caused by a ______________ that has _____________ as one of its main virulence factors. A. fungus ; keratinase B. fungus ; dimorphism C. virus ; IgA protease D. bacterium ; an AB toxin E. bacterium ; coagulaseA. fungus ; keratinaseA 63-year-old man had a hip implant a year ago. He has recently experienced pain in the hip, and suddenly developed a high fever and septicemia. The implant was removed, and its surface was scraped with an inoculating loop and plated on Blood agar. The growth is shown at the right. The organism most likely responsible for the infection is _____________ and its chief virulence factor is _____________. A. Staphylococcus aureus ; beta hemolysis B. Viridans group Streptococcus ; coagulase C. Group A Streptococcus ; toxic shock syndrome toxin D. Staphylococcus epidermidis ; ability to form biofilms E. Clostridium perfringens ; an AB exotoxinD. Staphylococcus epidermidis ; ability to form biofilmsWhich of the following disease organisms is correctly matched with the main symptoms of the disease that it causes? A. Pasteurella multocida - a circular or annular ("bull's eye") rash B. Rubella - congenital syndrome with blindness, deafness and mental retardation C. Varicella-Zoster Virus - cough, conjunctivitis and coryza (runny nose) D. Bartonella henselae - spasms and rigid paralysis of all skeletal muscles E. Hantavirus - painful blisters on the head or body of adults who have had chicken-poxB. Rubella - congenital syndrome with blindness, deafness and mental retardationWhich of the following statements about Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is correct? A. Most HPV infections can eventually cause cancer. B. HPV causes only some types of warts; other warts are caused by fungi. C. The Gardasil vaccine is effective against all varieties of HPV. D. Because it is protected by a tough envelope, HPV is difficult to destroy E. Only a few HPV types can insert their DNA as a provirus into the host's chromosome.E. Only a few HPV types can insert their DNA as a provirus into the host's chromosome.The organism that produces the infection shown in the picture has what major virulence factor? A. a lipid envelope B. dimorphic growth C. ability to survive in macrophages D. phospholipase E. keratinaseE. keratinaseStreptococcus and Staphylococcus infections can often resemble each other, but some are quite distinct. Which of the following is exclusively a Staphylococcal disease? A. Erysipelas B. Impetigo C. Furuncles D. Intoxication with a superantigen toxin E. Cat-Scratch DiseaseC. FurunclesMedical and Nursing students are taught to recognize infections with Pseudomonas aeruginosa as quickly as possible. How and why? (How, Why) A. green pigment, Forms biofilms that are almost impossible to treat B. "Bulls' eye" rash, Forms biofilms that are almost impossible to treat C. green pigment, Immune mimicry leads to autoimmune sequelae D. "Bulls' eye" rash, Immune mimicry leads to autoimmune sequelae E. direct ELISA test, Rapid spread of the infection throughout the bodyA. green pigment, Forms biofilms that are almost impossible to treatTetanus and Gangrene are both diseases associated with traumatic tissue injuries. How are they different? A. They are caused by unrelated organisms. B. Tetanus is an anaerobic infection; Gangrene is aerobic. C. Tetanus causes tissue ischemia; Gangrene causes paralysis. D. Tetanus can be treated with passive immunity; Gangrene can't be. E. Tetanus is much more common in the United States than Gangrene isD. Tetanus can be treated with passive immunity; Gangrene can't be.A main virulence factor of both Staphylococcus and Pseudomonas is . . . A. a green pigment that oxidizes macrophages B. an IgA protease C. a superantigen toxin D. the ability to survive within phagocytes E. the ability to form dense biofilmsE. the ability to form dense biofilmsYour patient is an 8-year-old boy who has been bitten on the hand by a cat. He noticed a red area around the bite site a few hours after it happened, but wasn't concerned. A few hours after that, the red area had begun to spread along his arm, and it really hurt, so he told his mom, who brought him to you. You suspect that this is the same disease agent that causes respiratory distress diseases in livestock. What is it? A. Clostridium perfringens B. Bartonella henselae C. Pasteurella multocida D. Clostridium tetani E. It is likely an A-B intoxication, not an organismC. Pasteurella multocidaAll of the following diseases EXCEPT ___________ are more serious in the fetus because of the fetus's lack of cellular immunity. A. Rubeola B. Rubella C. Varicella D. Toxoplasma E. HerpesA. RubeolaOne form of the organism that causes the symptoms shown in the picture enters the body on the point of at horn. It then changes to another form and progressively spreads along a lymphatic vessel. What is the disease? A. Thrush B. Coccidioidomycosis C. Trichomonas D. Sporotrichosis E. PapillomavirusD. SporotrichosisWhich of the following can be diagnosed by a characteristic rash and is usually transmitted to humans by a biological vector? A. Lyme Disease B. Staphylococcal Scalded Skin Syndrome C. Diphtheria D. Sporotrichosis E. PapillomavirusA. Lyme DiseaseWhich of the following is a childhood disease that is potentially serious because it leaves a patient immunocompromised. It is now rare in the United States because of an effective vaccine. A. Zoster B. Group A Streptococcus C. Measles D. German Measles E. ChickenpoxC. MeaslesThe infant shown in this picture has an itchy red rash that is making him fussy and irritated. The organism that is most likely causing this rash is . . . A. a dimorphic fungus like Sporothrix B. a yeast like Candida C. a dermatophyte like ringworm D. the Varicella virus E. Bartonella henselaeB. a yeast like CandidaWhich of the following may appear in many places in the body, all of which usually involve biofilms, often with a greenish pigment, forming on inadequately protected tissues? A. Lyme Disease B. Gangrene C. Staphylococcus D. Impetigo E. PseudomonasE. PseudomonasA 7-year-old girl went to the Doctor with a slight fever and swollen lymph nodes on her upper arm and neck. She said she had been playing "dress up" with her cat 2 weeks ago, and the cat didn't like the game. Which of the following diagnoses was most likely? A. Candida albicans B. Bartonella henselae C. Sporothrix schenckii D. Epstein-Barr Virus E. Pasteurella multocidaB. Bartonella henselaeA person who developed the skin rash shown at right might have what complication later on? A. She might get a painful skin rash many years later, because this is a latent virus. B. She might get warts. C. This virus can induce autoimmune kidney sequelae. D. If she is pregnant, her child may be born with congenital Rubella syndrome.. E. The virus immunocompromises her, and she could get pneumonia or encephalitis.A. She might get a painful skin rash many years later, because this is a latent virus.. What is a virulence factor of the organism that causes the dry, itchy, contact-transmitted skin infection shown at the right? A. An A-B toxin B. An alpha-hemolysin C. A tissue-specific adhesin D. Keratinase E. Ability to prevent phagosome-lysosome fusionD. Keratinase