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transient evidence

temporary; easily changed or lost; usually observed by the first officer at the scene

pattern evidence

produced by direct contact between a person and an object or between two objects

conditional evidence

produced by a specific event or action; important in crime scene reconstruction and in determining the set of circumstances or sequence within a particular event

transfer evidence

--produced by contact between person(s) or object(s), or between person(s) and object(s)

associative evidence

--items that may associated a victim or suspect with a scene or each other; ie, personal belongings


ability to distinguish important evidence from unrelated material


the collection and proper packing of evidence


using scientific testing


class characteristic measured against those of known standard or controls ,if all measurements are equal , then the two samples may be considered to have come from the same origin


in demostrating that the sample even among members of the same class


giving meaning to all information

indirect evidence

does not prove a fact

circumstance evidence

a fact or event without actually proving it


blood , semen. silva , sweat etc


fibers , glass, soil. gunpowder


fingerprints , footprints , shoeprints ,


laundry marks voice analysis polygraph

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