John Quincy Adams
said the national government should promote internal improvements, set up a national university, finance scientific explorations, and create a Department of the Interior.
In the face of attacks on his personal life by John Adams and others during the 1828 election, Andrew Jackson responded by
In the presidential election of 1828,
most of Andrew Jackson's support was in the states west and south of Pennsylvania.
The dispersion of plantation slavery and cotton culture into the Old Southwest—Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas
disrupted family ties and changed social life.
Despite the fact that Andrew Jackson continually opposed federal aid to local projects, he
did support interstate projects such as the National Road
Jackson's veto of the Maysville Road Bill demonstrated his belief
that the federal government should not fund purely local projects.
The theory of nullification (a theory that a state may nullify, or invalidate, any law that the state deems unconstitutional)
is associated with the name of John C. Calhoun.
In the Webster-Hayne debate, Robert Y. Hayne
argued that the Union was created by a compact of the states.
In the Webster-Hayne debate, Daniel Webster argued
that a state could neither nullify a federal law nor secede from the Union.
In response to the tariff controversy, a South Carolina state convention
nullified the tariffs of 1828 and 1832.
Jackson viewed the Bank of the United States as
monopoly that served the interests of a wealthy few.
In the case of Cherokee Nation v. Georgia, the Supreme Court ruled
that the Cherokees had an "unquestionable right" to their lands (but that didn't stop Andrew Jackson from pwning them and making them move).
President Jackson's attitude toward the Supreme Court's decision in Worcester v. Georgia was
defiance (the court has made their decision, now let them come ENFORCE it).
President Jackson vetoed the bill to recharter the Bank of the United States
four years before the Bank's charter expired.
As a result of Jackson's bank policies:
- sales of public land rose tremendously
- banks printed new banknotes with abandon
- the nation entered a period of speculative mania
The Specie Circular of 1836
said that only gold and silver would be accepted as payment for public lands.
All of the following factors contributed to the Panic of 1837:
- withdrawal of European investments
- drop in the price of cotton
- great increase in financial speculation during the Jackson administration
The proposal for an Independent Treasury
was designed to allow the government to stop risking its deposits in shaky banks.