Chapter 10 - Byzantine Empire and Russia
Terms in this set (27)
Why did Constantinople prosper?
It had high walls and golden domes, and stood as the proud capital of the Byzantine empire.
Explain why Constantine made Constantinople the new capital of the Roman empire
Roads fanned out to the Balkans, to the Middle East, and to North Africa.
Describe the location of Constantinople. How did it's location help to make the city and empire successful?
Located on the shores of Bosporus and the strait that linked the Mediterranean and Black seas, Constantinople had an excellent harbor. Constantinople also commanded key trade routes linkig Europe and Asia. For centuries, the city's favorable location made it Europe's busiest marketplace.
What happened at the Hippodrome?
The Hippodrome was an arena in the 200's where chariot races took place. This was another reminder of the city's glorious Roman heritage.
List different cultures that were blended together in the Byzantine Empire
Ancient Greek, Roman, and Christian influences with other traditions of the Mediterranean world.
Who was Justinian? What did he want to do? Did he attain his goals? Why or why not?
An emperor who was determined to revive ancient Rome by recovering the provinces that had been overrun by invaders. Byzantine armies reconquered North Africa, Italy, and southern Spain. However, the fighting exhausted Justinian's treasury and weakened his defenses in the east. Justinian's successors lost the bitterly contested lands.
A church built in Constantinople that glowed with colored marble and embroidered silk curtains.
Corpus Juris Civilis
•"Body of Civil Law" or Justinian's Code
•A massive collection of laws passed b Roman emperors, as well as the legal writings of Roman judges and a handbook for students.
What influence did Justinian's Code have on the world beyond the Byzantine Empire?
By the 1100's, it had reached Western Europe where both Roman Catholic Church and medieval monarchs modeled their laws on it principles. Centuries later, the code also guided legal thinkers who began to put together the international law in use today.
A sole ruler with complete authority.
Explain the Byzantine emperor's connection to the Chruch
Justinian, as an emperor, had complete power over the Church and was deemed Christ's co-ruler on Earth. As a Byzantine ruler official wrote, "the emperor is equal to all men in the nature of his body, but in the authority of his rank, he is similar to God, who rules all.
Who was Theodora? How did she influence Justinian?
Theodora was Justinian's wife who aided his control. A shrewd politician, she served as adviser and co-ruler to Justinian, and even pursued her own policies.
Explain what happened to the Byzantine Empire after the death of Justinian
•The fortunes of the empire rose and fell.
•Attacks by Persians, Slavs, vikings, mongols, and Turks were largely unsuccessful.
•In the 600's and 700's, Arab armies gained control of much of the Mediterranean, but Constantinople and the Byzantines withstood their attack.
•Peasants worked the land, payed taxes, and provided soldiers for the military.
•Trade and industry flourished.
•The empire's greatest strengths came from a strong central government and a prosperous economy.
The Byzantine gold coin stamped with the emperor's image.
Highest Church official
List 4 differences between the Christian Church in the East and the Christian Church in the West
a. The Byzantine emperor was not a priest, but controlled church affairs and appointed a priest.
b. Unlike priests in western Europe, the Byzantine clergy kept their right marry.
c. Greek, not Latin, was the language of the Byzantine Church.
d. The chief Byzantine holy day was Easter, celebrated as the day Jesus rose from the dead. However, western Christians placed greater emphasis on Christmas, the birthday of Jesus.
Explain the controversy that occurred over the use of icons
Many Byzantine Christians prayed to images of Christ, the Virgin Mary, and the saints. However, in the 700's, a Byzantine emperor outlawed the veneration of icons, saying it violated God's commandment against worshiping "graven images." This ban set off violent battles within the empire.
(He thought they were worshiping pictures, not the people in them)
Held in special regard
Permanent split (between the Byzantine/Eastern (Greek) Orthodox, and the Roman Catholic Churches)
Discuss what happened in 1054
Other controversies provoked schism between the Byzantine and the Roman Catholic Churches. The pope and the patriarch excommunicated each other. Thereafter, contacts between the two churches were guarded and distant. They treated each other as rivals rather than as branches of the same faith.
What was going on with the Byzantine Empire at the time of the schism?
The Byzantine empire was declining. Struggles over succession, court intrigues, and constant wars undermined its strength. As in western Europe, powerful local lords gained control of large areas. As the empire faltered, its enemies advanced.
Why did Crusaders attack Constantinople during the Fourth Crusade?
Venetian merchants persuaded knights to attack Constantinople for their treasures. For 3 days, Crusaders burned and plundered the city, sending much treasure westward.
Explain how the Byzantine Empire finally fell. What happened to Constantinople?
In 1453, Ottoman forces surrounded the city of Constantinople. After a siege lasting 2 months, they stormed the broken walls. When the last Byzantine emperor was offered safe passage, he replied, "God forbid that I should live an emperor without an empire." He chose instead to die fighting.
Why did the Byzantine Empire last as long as it did?
The Byzantine Empire stood for centuries as the enduring symbol of Roman civilization. Throughout the Middle Ages, Byzantine influence radiated across Europe.
Describe two contributions of the Byzantine artists at that time
Byzantine artists made unique contributions, especially in religious art and architecture. Icons, designed to evoke the presence of God, gave viewers a sense of personal contact with the sacred. Mosaics brought scenes from the Bible to glowing life. Byzantine palaces and churches blended Greek, Roman, Persian, and other Middle Eastern styles.
Who was Procopius? What did he write about in his book, Secret History?
Procopius was an adviser to the general, Belisarius, who chronicled the Byzantine campaign against Persia. In Secret History, he savagely criticized Justinian and Theodora. He called the emperor "both an evil-doer and easily led into evil ... never of his own accord speaking the truth."
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