52 terms

Henle Latin Grammar Rules

From Henle Latin Grammar
STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

1. The Alphabet
The Latin Alphabet has no 'w' or 'y'; otherwise it is the same as the English.
2. Pronunciation of Latin Long Vowels:
A - as in father.
E - as in they.
I - as in machine.
O - as in no.
U - as in rule.
2. Pronunciation of Latin Short Vowels:
a - as in facility.
e - as in get.
i - as in fit.
o - as in obey.
u - as in put.
3. Note: Pronunciation:
Very often in practice the difference between the long and short vowels is ignored, all are given the quality of long vowels (a-e-i-o-u in Spanish).
In reading poetry a quantitative difference alone is maintained between long and short vowels.
4. Pronunciation of Diphthongs:
1. ae - like 'e' as in they.
2. oe - like 'e' as in they.

3. au - like 'ou' as in out.
5. Pronunciation of Consonants: Part 1
Most consonants are pronounced as in English with the exception of 'c' and 'g', which vary from hard to soft sounds.
5. Pronunciation of Consonants: Part 2
Hard 'c' as in cat; soft 'c' as in cell.
Hard 'g' as in gun; soft 'g' as in germ.
Both 'c' and 'g' are soft when followed by 'e', 'ae' or 'oe' - like cell and germ; by 'i' - like cigar and gym.
'j' is pronounced like 'y' in yet.
6. a. Division into Syllables: Single Consonant
A single consonant goes with the following vowel.
ma/ter ; nau/ta; no/men
7. b. Division into Syllables: 2 or More Consonants
Two or more consonants are divided after the first.
por/ta; exer/citus; pul/chra
8. Note: Division into Syllables
But when a mute (c, g, p, b, t, d) or 'f' is followed by 'r' or 'l', both consonants go with the following vowel.
la/crima; a/grum; pa/trem; va/fra; locu/ples
9. a. Accent Placement: 2 Syllable Words
In words of two syllables the accent is on the first.
vía; béllum
10. b. Accent Placement: More than 2 Syllable Words
In words of more than two syllables, if the second last syllable is long it is accented; otherwise the accent is on the third last syllable.
vidérunt; ágmine
11 a. Quantity of Syllables: Short
A syllable is short if it contains a vowel that is short by nature or that is followed by another vowel or diphthong.
regere; gloria
12 b. Quantity of Syllables: Long
A syllable is long if it contains a vowel that is long by nature or a vowel that is followed by two consonants other than a mute (c, g, p, b, t, d) or f followed by a liquid (r, l).
studere; regendus
13 Note: Quantity of Syllables
'x' and 'z' each count as two consonants (cs and ds); 'h' and the 'u' in 'qu' do not count as consonants.
14. Nouns
Nouns have gender, number, case, and declension.
15. Nouns: Gender Types
There are three genders in Latin:
masculine, feminine, neuter.
16. Nouns: Masculine
All nouns meaning individual male persons are masculine.
17. Nouns: Feminine
All nouns meaning individual female persons are feminine.
18. Nouns: Other
The gender of other nouns must be learned from their declension or from the vocabularies.
19. Nouns: Number
There are two numbers in Latin:
singular and plural.
20. Nouns: Number: Singular
The singular speaks of one:
via, a road.
21. Nouns: Number: Plural
The plural speaks of more than one:
viae, roads
22. Nouns: Case
There are six cases in Latin.
22. Case: Nominative
Subject
(the case of the Subject)
22. Case: Genitive
Possessive
(the case of the Possessor)
22. Case: Dative
Indirect object
(the case of the Indirect Object; the 'to' of 'for' case)
22. Case: Accusative
Direct object
(the case of the Direct Object).
22. Case: Ablative
Object of the preposition
(the 'by-with-from' case [used frequently with prepositions].
22. Case: Vocative
the case of the Person Addressed.
23. Nouns: Declension
Declension consists in adding the proper ENDINGS to the STEM to show the different genders, numbers, and cases.
24. Nouns: Stem
The stem is found by dropping the ENDING of the GENITIVE SINGULAR.
vi-ae, stem: vi-
25. Nouns: The Five Declensions
There are five declensions in Latin.
They can be distinguished by the endings
of the genitive singular.
1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th
-ae -i -is -us -ei
vi-ae serv-i leg-is port-us r-ei
26. Nouns: How to Decline a Noun
The nominative, genitive, and gender of a noun
determine which model it follows.
Add the endings of that model to the stem.
27. a. Nouns: How to Decline a Noun
Note
The stem is that part of the word which remains the same in spelling throughout the declension.
It gives the meaning of the word.

The endings show what the word does in the sentence, whether it is the subject, direct object, indirect object, etc.
28. b. Nouns: How to Decline a Noun
Note: Vocative
The vocative of all nouns and adjectives is always like the nominative except in singular nouns in -us of the second declension: these have -e. Serv-e! Slave!

Exceptions: Proper nouns
in -ius and filius, son, have only -i in the vocative singular. Vergilius, voc. Vergili; filius, voc. fili.
The vocative singular of Deus, God, is Deus;
the vocative masculine singular of meus is mi;
fili mi! my son!
29. c. Nouns: How to Decline a Noun
Note: accusative
The accusative neuter of neuter nouns and adjectives is always like the nominative.
30. d. Nouns: How to Decline a Noun
Note: locative
Names of towns, and domus, home, and rus, country, have another case -the locative- expressing place where.
In singulars of the first and second declensions in the locative is like the genitive: Romae, at Rome.
In all others it is like the ablative:
Carthagine (Carthago, Carthaginis), at Carthage.
But rus, country, has ruri or rure, in the country.
See No. 915.
31. The First Declension
Nom = Nominative
Gen = Genitive
Dat = Dative
Acc = Accusative
Abl = Ablative
# Case Form Meaning Use
S Nom terr -a land, the (a) land subject
S Gen terr -ae of the (a) land possessive
S Dat terr -ae to, for the (a) land indirect object
S Acc terr-am the (a) land direct object
S Abl terr -a by, with, from **
the (a) land

# Case Form Meaning Use
P Nom terr -ae lands, the lands subject
P Gen terr -arum of the lands possessive
P Dat terr -is to, for the lands indirect object
P Acc terr -as lands, the lands direct object
P Abl terr -is by, with, from **
the lands

** object of the preposition
32. a. Nouns: Gender: Masculine
All nouns naming individual male persons are masculine.
nauta, ae, a sailor, masculine. (Sailors are usually men.)
33. b. Nouns: Gender: Feminine
All others are feminine.
terra, ae, land, feminine.
34. Masculine Nouns of the 2nd Declension
# Case Form Meaning Use
S Nom serv -us the slave subject
S Gen serv -i of the slave, slave's possessive
S Dat serv -o to or for the slave indirect object
S Acc serv -um the slave direct object
S Abl serv -o by, with, from **
the slave

# Case Form Meaning Use
P Nom serv -i the slaves subject
P Gen serv -orum of the slaves, slaves' possessive
P Dat serv -is to or for the slaves indirect object
P Acc serv -os the slaves direct object
P Abl serv -is by, with, from **
the slaves

** object of the preposition
35. Masculine Nouns of the 2nd Declension: Gender
generally masculine
36. Masculine Nouns of the 2nd Declension
Note: Proper Names
Proper names in -ius and filius, son, form their vocative singular in -i.
Vergilius, Vergili; filius, fili.
37. Neuter Nouns of the 2nd Declension
# Case Form Meaning Use
S Nom bell -um the war subject
S Gen bell -i of the war, war's possessive
S Dat bell -o to or for the war indirect object
S Acc bell -um the war direct object
S Abl bell -o by, with, from **
the war

# Case Form Meaning Use
P Nom bell -a the wars subject
P Gen bell -orum of the wars, wars' possessive
P Dat bell -is to or for the wars indirect object
P Acc bell -a the wars direct object
P Abl bell -is by, with, from **
the wars

** object of the preposition
38. Neuter Nouns of the 2nd Declension: Gender
All Neuter (there are no exceptions)
39. Neuter Nouns of the 2nd Declension
Note: Accusative
The accusative is like the nominative in all neuter nouns and adjectives. Thus,
singular nominative bellum
accusative bellum
plural nominative bella
accusative bella
(cf flumen, No. 64, gravis, e, No. 78, etc)
40. Nouns: 2nd Declension: Exceptions
Vir, viri, (man)
and words like ager, agri (field)
and puer, pueri (boy)
belong to the 2nd declension. (Note the genitive in -i).
They are declined like servus except in the nominative (and vocative) singular. Thus: (see No. 41-43)
41. Nouns: 2nd Declension: Exceptions
vir
vir -i
vir -o
vir -um
vir -o

vir -i
vir -orum
vir -is
vir -os
vir -is
41. Nouns: 2nd Declension: Exceptions
ager
ager -i
ager -o
ager -um
ager -o

ager -i
ager -orum
ager -is
ager -os
ager -is
41. Nouns: 2nd Declension: Exceptions
puer
puer -i
puer -o
puer -um
puer -o

puer -i
puer -orum
puer -is
puer -os
puer -is
44. Nouns: Deus
Deus, i (God) shows peculiarities in the underlined forms.
The vocative singular is Deus.

Singular Plural
Nominative deus di (dei, dii)
Genitive dei deorum (deum)
Dative deo dis (deis, diis)
Accusative deum deos
Ablative deo dis (deis, diis)

The forms in parentheses occur in some writers.