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Chapter 3 and 4 test review

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Temperature is a measure of the average ______ energy of the particles in the object.
kinetic
What determines the speed of atoms and molecules of a particular substance?
Size of the atoms and molecules, temperature of the substance
the kinetic theory states that the higher the temperature, the faster the ______.
particles that make up a substance move
The change of a substance from a solid directly to a gas is called _________.
sublimation
evaporation refers to the change of state from a ______ to a ________.
liquid, gas
The law of conservation of mass states that mass cannot be ________ or ________.
created, destroyed
Ice floats in water because it is _______.
less dense than water
All matter is made of atoms and molecules that are _________
always in motion
According to the law of conservation of mass, ________
total mass stays the same in changes of state
According to the law of conservation of energy, _________
energy is not created or destroyed in changes of state
when ice melts to form liquid, energy is _______.
absorbed
A substance changes from a liquid to a gas during evaporation because__________.
energy is absorbed
What happens to the particles of a substance when it condenses?
particles slow down and clump together
Unlike a gas, a plasma _________.
conducts electric current
The kinetic theory helps to explain the differences between _________.
states of matter
According to the new model of the atom, electrons behave like __________.
planets orbiting the sun
Valence electrons determine a atom's
chemical properties
If the atomic mass of carbon is 12 u, 1 mole of pure carbon will have a mass of _____.
12 g
You have 85.5 g of flourine, which has a molar mass of 19 g/mol. How may moles of flourine do you have?
4.5 mol
Decmocritus's original atomic theory was revised because it ________.
did not have a scientific basis
J.J. Thomson created the _________ experiment.
cathode ray
Rutherford did the __________ experiment.
gold foil
Thomson is responsible for discovering that an atom contains a _________.
nucleus
Whose model determined that an atom's positive charge is concentrated in the atom's center?
Rutherford's
What is the mass of 2.5 mol of Ca, which has a molar mass of 40 g/mol?
100.0 g
What is the amount of nickel, which has an average atomic mass of 58.7 u, present in 525 g nickel?
8.90 mol
Avogadro's number is useful for _______.
counting atoms
What is the molar mass of an element with an average atomic mass of 9.012 u?
9.012 g
An iron atom has an atomic mass of 56. Its atomic number is 26. How many neutrons does the iron atom have?
30
An element's atomic number is equal to its number of _______.
protons
Two different isotopes of an element have different ________.
numbers of neutrons
What is the mass number of an element that has 19 protons, 19 electrons, and 20 neutrons?
39
A sodium atom, which has 11 electrons, has __ electron(s) in its third energy level.
1
An electron jumps to a new energy level when _______.
the atom gains or loses energy
Dalton's atomic theory stated that every element was made of atoms that could not be subdivided, atoms of the same element are alike, and ________.
atoms of different elements could form to join compounds
An element's average atomic mass is a ________ average, so ___________.
weighted, common isotopes have a greater effect than uncommon ones
A mole is an SI base unit that describes the _______ of a substance.
amount
You have 6.50 mol of chromium, which has a molar mass of 52 g/mol. What is the mass in grams of this amount of chromium?
338 g
An atom's mass number equals the number of
protons plus the number of neutrons
Calculate the molar mass of the compound C3H8
44 g/mol
The kinetic theory states that, at the same _______, heavier particles move more slowly than lighter particles.
temperature
As energy is added a solid substance, the atoms _________ and move apart.
vibrate faster
For any change of state to occur, ________ must be transferred.
energy
The first person who suggested that matter was made up of atom was the Greek philosopher __________.
Democritus
A region in which there is a high probability of finding an electron is called a(n) ________.
orbital
The number of particles in one mole of a substance is referred to as ___________.
Avogadro's number
The molar mass of krypton is 83.80 g/mol. The mass of 5.00 mol of krypton is ________.
419 g
Thomson's cathode-ray tube experiment supported the theory that _______ exist inside an atom.
electrons
Rutherford's gold-foil experiment revealed that an atom's positive charge is concentrated in the atom's ________.
nucleus
Unit of quantum of light.
photon
Main points of the kinetic theory of matter:
speeds depend on temperature and size, particles are always in motion
Calculate the molar mass of Iron III Oxide Fe2O3
136 g/mol
Calculate the molar mass of Glucose, C6H12O6
132 g/mol
Calculate the molar mass of Sodium Hydroxide, NaOH
40 g/mol
Write the electron configuration of Carbon.
[He] 2s^2, 2p^2
Write the electron configuration of Calcium.
[Ar] 4s^2
Write the electron configuration of Chlorine.
[Ne] 3s^2, 3p^5
If you know element's molar mass, explain how you can determine that mass of a particular amount of the element.
multiply amount of element in moles by its molar mass
Explain why atoms have no electric charge even though they are made up of charged particles.
equal amount of electrons and protons and they equal each other out