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Geo Terms

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Which of the following events allows rocks on either side of a fault to rebound elastically, causing an earthquake?
Friction along the fault plane is overcome.
What is peridotite?
the rock making up the mantle
What causes melting of material under divergent plate boundaries?
decompression of rocks
What type of stress is most directly associated with transform faults?
shear stress
Earth's magnetic field switches polarity at irregular time intervals. (T or F)
True
How are elastic rebound and elastic deformation different?
Elastic deformation causes objects to bend, whereas rebound causes objects to return to their original shape.
What is a fault?
fractures along which rocks move
What type of stress is associated with divergent boundaries?
tensional stress
What type of stress is most directly associated with convergent boundaries?
compressional stress
At which type of tectonic setting would you expect the development of composite volcanoes?
an oceanic plate subducted beneath a continental plate
Explain elastic rebound
When rocks can store energy until the stress becomes too much and they break
Which type of force is responsible for normal strike-slip formation?
shear force
Which type of fault has NO vertical motion of rocks associated with it?
strike-slip fault
Which of the following events allows rocks on either side of a fault to rebound elastically, causing an earthquake?
Friction along the fault plane is overcome.
Which type of force is responsible for reverse fault formation?
compressional force
What is peridotite?
the rock making up the mantle
Where are continental volcanic arcs found?
on the overriding plate near a subduction zone
What is a mantle plume?
a circular column of magma that rises from deep within Earth
What is the magnitude of an earthquake?
The amount of energy released as the rock breaks
Which type of force is responsible for normal fault formation?
tensional force
The force pushing viscous magma to extrude during an eruption comes from what?
volatiles
What type of stress is most directly associated with transform faults?
shear stress
How are continental rift magmas and continental arc magmas different?
Continental arc magmas are more viscous than continental rift magmas.
Thermodynamics
Thermal energy-energy of vibrating atoms
Heat- total thermal energy of all the atoms in a substance
Temperature-the average thermal energy of all the atoms in substance
Entropy- amount of disorder/disorganization in a system
Melt-increase the entropy
At which type of tectonic setting would you expect the development of shield volcanoes?
mantle plumes
What are seismic waves?
vibrations caused by an earthquake