64 terms

Lighting

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

Spotlight
-a metal-enclosed lighting instrument that can be focused
-having a lens and a mirror that give out a concentrated that can be directed specifically; used to light acting areas/also called a spot.
What are the 5 major types of instruments?
-Ellipsoidal Reflector spotlight
-Follow Spot
-Flood Light
-Fresnel
-Portable Strip Light
What are to different names for Ellipsoidal Reflector Spotlight?
ERS and Leko
Ellipsoidal Reflector Spotlight
-a highly efficient lighting instrument with a reflector shaped like an ellipsoid
-Often hung in front of house
-because it has a long throw.
Follow Spot
-a long-range
-high wattage (1000 to 2600 watts) lighting instrument
-capable of picking up or following a person moving on the stage
-with a beam strong enough to stand out against normal stage lighting; may be xenon, carbon arc, quartz, or incandescent type.
Flood Light
-a high wattage (500 to 1500 watts) lighting instrument with a metal shell open at one end
-the inner surface of which is painted white
-is polished metal, or has a mirror to reflect the non -focused light; also called a flood.
Fresnel
a spotlight featuring a Fresnel or stepped lens
-which projects a clear, strong light with a soft edge.
What is another name for a Fresnel?
Stepped lens
Portable Strip Light
a light used for side lighting, backing entrance lighting, or cyclorama lighting requiring three circuits.
Name two color sources/major color media?
Roundels and Gelatin
Roundels
a transparent color medium placed on strip lights to produce different colors
Gelatin
a transparent color medium placed on lighting instruments to produce different colors; also called gel
Name four types of light.
-Key light
-Fill light
-Side Light
-Backlight
Keylight
the strong source of light aimed at an acting area.
Fill light
the light that fills shadows, aimed opposite a key light.
Side light
lighting instrument behind the tormentor position for facial modeling and costume accent
Backlight
...
What are the three major parts of a spotlight?
-lamp
-reflector
-lens
lamp
source of light
reflector
mirror that reflects the light
lens
focuses the light
Name three other parts of and instruments.
-housing
-yoke
-safety wire
Housing
the metal structure that encloses a light system
Yoke
the handle of the lighting instrument
Safety Wire
metal wire that is attached to the instrument and to a batten or some other part of the gridwork to keep it from falling
Dimmer
an electrical device that controls the amount of current flowing into a lighting instrument, thus increasing or decreasing the intensity of the light
Light Panel
a console from which the brightness of light is controlled
Cable
heavily insulated wire for joining lighting instruments to electrical outlets or to a switchboard
Connector
a device for joining cables to each other or to instruments.
Where is the Front of House (FOH)?
area in front of the apron, over the audience
Light Plot
a diagram showing the placement of the lighting instruments and plugging system and where th e beams from all the lighting instruments fall
Lighting Que Sheet
the lighting technician's guide for all dimmer reading and settings at act or scene openings and for all lighting changes; also called cue sheet
Scrim
a drop made of fabric that seems almost opaque when lit from the front and semi transparent when lit from behind; also called a gauze
What is another name for the Scrim?
Gauze
Name three lighting accesories.
Barndoor, Gel Frame, Gobo
Barndoor
a metal frame with two or four flaps used to shape the light pattern of a spotlight
Gel Frame
a metal frame that holds the color gel
Gobo
a stencil or metal pattern that is placed in the gel holder of a spotlight to project the pattern out on the stage.
Often lighting can take the place of paint on a set. Why?
It instantly transforms backgrounds by indicating changes in mood, action, and location.
History of lighting: Lighting has been created by 5 main ways. List them in order.
a) daylight
b) candles and torches
c) gaslight
d) artificial light (ie. Limelight)
e) electricity
Where do we get the term limelight?
Thomas Drummond of England developed an early spotlight where an oxyhydrogen flame was directed against a block of calcium oxide (or lime). (Happened by the 1820's)
What the major danger of stage lighting?
Fire
When purchasing lighting equipment for a school theatre, what are the 3 main considerations?
a) flexible
b) efficient
c) economical
*what are three things that determine flexibility?
Mobility can you move it from one spot to another, Control: what you can do with the light
Multiple service: can you use it in several ways
A lighting designer understands the theatre space when deciding upon the needed lighting equipment.
Name the 5 major questions he/she might ask himself about the theatre space.
a) What is the availability and number of dimmers?
b) What is the size of the stage? Especially the depth of the acting area and of the apron
c) What is the height of the theatre ceiling or the distance to the balcony rail?
d) What is the availability of the mounting locations?
e) What is the budget?
What are ERS used for?
-front lighting, washes, sidelighting and
backlighting. Often mounted in the ceiling, on balcony rails or electrics.
-work courses of lights
What are Fresnel used for?
-used to project a clear, strong light with a soft edge.
-Mounted on a pipe behind grand drape and on pipes located on-third to two-thirds upstage
-used for Specials, gives a soft edge
What are Flood lights used for?
-special effects such as sunlight and moonlight; light the cyc
-work or rehersal light
What are Follow Spots used for?
-follows an actor's movements on stage
-diverts our attention
What are strip lights used for?
-(border lights) for general stage use and scenic color blending
-Used for sidelighting, backing or entrance lighting or cyc lighting
-Used for general stage lighting, used on cyc, used to light a door way entrance
What is a T-H bulb?
Tungsten-Halogen Lamp
What are the pros of using a T-H bulb?
-more efficient
-less expensive
-Last 4X longer
What are the cons of using T-H bulbs?
-runs hot
-fade or warp gels
-will crack if your fingers touch them
If you were a lighting designer, what kinds of things would you do when working with 3 light qualities?
Intensity
Color
Distribution
Intensity
dimness or brightness: think about gradual dimming, keep strong lights off the back wall, don't want to have shadows
Intensity concerns
1) don't be lost in unplanned pockets of dark shadows
2) don't get rid of all shadows by using generalized bright light
3) Consider using only spotlights and floods
4) Keep strong lights off the set walls
5) Consider keeping upper walls in shadow
6) Dim and crossfade
7) Don't leave the audience in the dark for very long
Color
the color of the gel and lighting: think about all the colors of the material on stage, patterns and prints can cause problems, period plays are difficult because of the materials and colors
Color concerns
1) Use green color medium to get a green light
2) Lean toward delicate gels
3) Cool gels - special lavender, surprise pink, no-color blue, medium & daylight blue
4) Special effects - frost and chocolate
5) Green-blue makes a better night scene that blues and violets
6) Smooth shiny fabrics reveal light and shadows
7) Heavy course material - absorbs much light and can look expensive
8) Patterns and prints are challenging
Distribution
where the light hits on stage: pair spotlights into 45 degree angles, make sure all the most important areas have lighting, avoid straight on lighting=> creates flat faces
Distribution concerns
1) Pair spotlights
2) 45 degree angles
3) Avoid straight on lighting
4) Important acting areas need the most light
5) Use key and fill lights
Where is Key lighting positioned on stage?
Aimed at each acting area; usually in front of house; in front of actor
Where is Fill lighting positioned on stage?
Aimed at each acting area; usually in front of house; in front of actor
Where is Backlighting positioned on stage?
Above and behind the actor
Where is Key lighting positioned on stage?
Upstage of the tormentor in the wings