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28 terms

Chapter 8 - Synovial Joints

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Articular Cartilage
Smooth hyaline cartilage. Absorbs compression placed on the joint and keeps the bone ends from being crushed.
Articular capsule
A two layered capsule that encloses a joint. made of a fibrous capsule and a synovial membrane.
Fibrous capsule, synovial membrane
What are the two layers of an articular capsule?
Fibrous capsule
Part of the articular capsule, it is composed of dense irregular connective tissue. Strengthens the joints so that the bones are not pulled apart.
Synovial Membrane
Part of the articular capsule, it is composed of loose connective tissue. It covers all internal joint surfaces that are not hyaline cartilage
Synovial Fluid
Fluid that occupies all free spaces within the joint capsule.
Intracapsular Ligaments
Reinforcing ligaments found deep to the capsule of a synovial joint.
Extracapsular ligaments
Reinforcing ligaments found outside the capsule of a synovial joint
Articular Discs
Found in some synovial joints, it is discs or wedges of fibrocartilage separating the articular surfaces. Improve the fit betwen articulating bone ends, making the joint more stable and minimizing wear and tear
Bursae
It is a flattened fibrous sac lined with synovial membrane and containing a thin film of synovial fluid. Occur where ligaments, muscles, skin, tendons, or bones rub together.
Tendon Sheath
An elongated bursa that wraps completely around a tendon subjected to friction
articular surfaces, ligaments, muscle tone
What are the stabilizing factors of synovial joints?
Origin
Where a muscle is attached to the immovable bone
Insertion
Where the muscle is attached to the movable bone. Moves towards the origin.
Nonaxial movement
Slipping movement only, no axis.
Uniaxial movement
Movement in one plane
Biaxial Movement
Movement in two planes
Multiaxial movement
Movement in three or more planes
Cartilage Tear
A joint injury that typically occurs when a meniscus is subjected to compression and shear stress at the same time. Can be helped by arthroscopic surgery
Sprain
A joint injury where the ligaments reinforcing a joint are stretched or torn.
Dislocation
A joint injury where the bones are forced out of alignment
Bursitis
A joint injury where there is inflammation of the bursa and is usually caused bya blow or friction
Tendonitis
A joint injury where inflammation of tendon sheaths, typically caused by overuse.
Arthritis
Over 100 different types of inflammatory or degenerative diseases that damage the joints.
Osteoarthritis
Most common chronic arthritis. May reflect the cumulative effects of years of compression and abrasion acting at joint surfaces, causing excessive amounts of the cartilage destroying enzymes to be released.
Rheumatoid Arthritis
Chronic inflammatory disorder of the joints. An autoimmune disease. Inflammation of the synovial membrane of the affected joints. Inflamed synovial membrane thickens into a panus
Gouty Arthritis
WHen uric acid rise excessively, it may be deposited as needle shaped urate crystals in the soft tissues of the joints, causing inflammation of the joints.
Lyme Disease
A joint disease caused by spirochete bacteria transmitted by the bites of ticks tat live on mice and deer. Often results in joint pain and arthritis