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define tissue

groups of cells with similar functions

define cytology

the study of cells

define histology

the study of tissue

4 types of tissue

connective, epithelial, muscular, nervous.

epithelial tissue

covers,lines, is glandular. anchored by connective tissue.

3 types of epithelial tissue

squamous, cuboidal, columnar

shape: squamos epithelial

thin and flat

shape: cuboidal epithelial

cube shaped

shape: columnar epithelial

column/rectangle shaped

simple epithelial

one layer

stratified epithelial

two or more layers

pseudostratified epithelial

falsely layered "one layer"

Stratified cuboidal

many layers of cube shaped cells, found in glands

Stratified cuboidal found in


pseudostratified columnar found in

upper respiratory tract

Stratified squamous

many layers of thin flat cells

Dry (keratinized) stratified squamous found in

epidermis of skin

Wet (non-keratinized) stratified squamous found in

mouth, vagina, rectum

Stratified columnar

many layers of column shaped cells

stratified columnar found in

male urethra

transitional epithelium

the only epithelium that can stretch

transitional epithelium found in

urinary bladder

3 junctions between epithelial cells

tight, gap, demosome

tight junction

impermeable connection between adjacent cells

gap junction

tubular protein that connects adjacent cells


stitch between adjacent cell membranes, helps cells resist mechanical stress


half-stitch that connects the basil surface of the epithelium to the basement membrane

Connective tissue function

connects or binds things

connective tissue components

cells, matrix, ground substance, fibers

connective tissue: cells

secrete matrix

connective tissue: matrix

consists of ground susbstance

connective tissue: ground substance

solid, liquid or semi-solid

connective tissue: fibers

suspended in the ground substance (collagen)

Types of connective tissue

fibrous, supportive, fluid

types of fibrous connective tissue

dense and loose

Dense fibrous CT

fibers densely packed in the tissue

Dense fibrous CT found in

tendons, ligaments, dermis of the skin

Loose fibrous CT

fibers loosely packed

loose fibrous CT found in

adipose (fat), areolar tissue

types of supportive CT

cartilage, bone, cells

Types of cartilage supportive ct

Hyaline, fibrocartilage, elastic

Hyaline cartilage

most common, strong and flexible

hyaline cartilage found in

embryonic skeleton, joins


strong, not flexible

fibrocartilage found in

intervertebral disks, pubic symphysis, menisci

elastic cartilage

flexible but not strong

elastic cartilage found in

pinna of the ear

Cartilage cells


Types of bone

spongy, compact

spongy bone

filled with large open spaces

compact bone

appears solid, but has tiny holes

3 types of bone cells

osteocyte, osteoblast, osteoclast


mature bone cell


bone building cell


bone destroying cell

2 types Fluid connective tissue

blood, lymph

2 things in blood

matrix, cells

blood matrix

plasma (mostly water)

types of cells in blood

red, white, platelets

red blood cells

carry oxygen

white blood cells

fight infection


clotting cells

Lymph fluid

blood derivative

Muscle Tissue function


types of muscle

skeletal, cardiac, smooth

skeletal muscle location

attaches to bone

skeletal muscle cell shape and appearance

long & cylindrical, striated or striped

Skeletal muscle control

what muscle control is voluntary?

skeletal muscle nuclei and reproduction

multi and amitotic (cannot divide)

cardiac muscle location


cardiac muscle cell shape and appearance

branched, striated/striped

cardiac muscle control


cardiac muscle nuclei and reproduction

usually uni-nucleate, amitotic (cannot divide)

Smooth muscle location

walls of hollow organs and blood vessels

smooth muscle cell shape and appearance

spindle shaped, non-striated

smooth muscle control


smooth muscle nuclei and reproduction

ini-nucleate, can reproduce

Nervous tissue function

control body functions

nervous tissue cell types

neuron, neuroglia


main cell type of NT


support neurons, AKA glial cells

types of neuroglia

microglial, ependymal, oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, schwann cells

Body membranes are

found lining body surfaces

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