letu intro to psych unit 3

The most basic or lowest-level need in Maslow's hierarchy of human motives includes the need for
Click the card to flip 👆
1 / 60
Terms in this set (60)
The two-factor theory of emotion places more emphasis on the importance of ________ than does the James-Lange theory.cognitive activityThe lingering arousal associated with one emotional state can intensify a completely different state of emotion. This is calledthe spillover effect.While entering her darkened apartment Naomi feels someone tap her shoulder from behind (her roommate). Naomi's sympathetic nervous system triggers her adrenal glands to release stress hormones, which stimulates behavior. This reaction is known asthe fight-or-flight response.Cortney is skydiving for the first time. When she jumps out of the plane, she feels intense arousal and fear, which are activated by the ________; when she lands safely, she calms down and feels a sense of relief, which is produced by the ________.sympathetic division; parasympathetic divisionAs people experience negative emotionsthe right frontal cortex becomes more electrically active.People are especially good at quickly detecting facial expressions ofangerThe fact that people from widely different cultures display and interpret facial expressions of emotion in a similar manner best illustrates the impact ofhuman genetic similarities.The facial feedback effect suggests thatexpressing a specific emotion, especially facially, influences the subjective experience of that particular emotion.According to ________, certain movements can stimulate emotions.the behavior feedback effectImitating another person's facial expression of emotion is most likely to facilitateempathy.Psychologists define stress asthe process by which we appraise and respond to threatening or challenging events.Luigi minimized the stress of testing positive for HIV by viewing this circumstance as an opportunity for a renewed religious commitment and spiritual growth. His reaction best illustrates the importance ofstress appraisal.The three successive phases of the general adaptation syndrome arealarm reaction, resistance, and exhaustion.Following a catastrophic earthquake, residents of one community came together and provided one another with emotional support. This reaction best illustratesthe tend-and-befriend response.After losing her job, Melanie not only felt stressed out but also repeatedly suffered annoying cold symptoms. This was most likely due tosuppressed lymphocyte activity.Avoiding stress is LEAST likely to inhibit the progression of ________ in humans.advanced cancerWho is the best example of a Type A personality?Blake, a competitive, hot-tempered corporation presidentWho is the best example of a Type B personality?Stacie, a relaxed, easygoing dentistTo reduce the stress of losing his job, Jeffrey enrolled in a work-retraining program that led to full-time employment. Jeffrey's behavior best illustratesproblem-focused coping.The passive resignation that accompanies an inability to avoid repeated aversive events is calledlearned helplessness.The perception that our fate is determined by chance reflectsan external locus of control.Those who perceive an internal locus of control believe thatindividuals can influence their own outcomes in life.Those with an internal locus of control act ________ independently and feel ________ depressed than those with an external locus of control.more; lessCompared to those with an external locus of control, people who perceive an internal locus of control are more likely tocope effectively with stress.The ability to delay immediate gratification of our impulses best illustratesself-control.Tawanda experiences little stress because she expects things to work out the way she wants them to. This best illustrates the value ofoptimism.Learned helplessness is most likely to promotepessimism.Most college students perceive themselves as less likely than their average classmate to develop drinking problems. This best illustratesunrealistic optimism.Which of the following is most likely to foster stronger immune functioning?social supportConfiding painful feelings to trusted friends or family members can most clearly help us cope with stressful events because it helpsmake sense of those events.Which branch of psychology is most directly concerned with the study of how people think about, influence, and relate to one another?social psychologyThe fundamental attribution error refers to our tendency to underestimate the impact of ________ and to overestimate the impact of ________ in explaining the behavior of others.situational influences; personalityAttitudes are ________ that guide behavior.belief-based feelingsAttitudes are especially likely to affect behavior whenexternal influences on behavior are minimal.The set of prescribed behaviors associated with a particular social position is best described as a(n)role.Richard, as a new police officer, believed that his job was to help people in the community. His partner, who is an experienced officer, told Richard that being a good officer involved looking for any reason to arrest and detain others. Richard now spends his day trying to arrest as many people as possible. Based on the findings of Zimbardo's prison study, Richard's change in attitude about his job illustrates the impact ofrole-playing on attitudes.The discomfort we feel when our thoughts and behaviors are inconsistent is calledcognitive dissonance.Adjusting our behavior or thinking toward a group standard is calledconformitySocial norms are best described asrules for socially expected and accepted behavior.What were the basic results of psychologist Stanley Milgram's original obedience study?Despite hearing protests from the "learner" in another room, more than 60 percent of the participants continued to administer shocks all the way to the full 450-volt level.Social facilitation refers to the tendency toperform well-learned tasks more effectively in the presence of others.Social loafing refers to the tendency for people toexert less effort when they are pooling their efforts toward a common goal.Deindividuation refers toa loss of self-awareness and self-restraint in group situations that fosters arousal and anonymity.Jonny, Zakarius, Fernando, and Lee each think that Dr. Awesome may be a slightly better teacher than Dr. Average. After discussing why each of them believes this to be so, they all conclude that Dr. Awesome is a much better teacher than Dr. Average. This episode provides an example ofgroup polarization.Groupthink is defined asthe mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives.Prejudice is best defined asan unfair, usually negative, attitude toward a group and its members.Which of the following describes a stereotype?Joshua is convinced that university professors are usually impractical and forgetful.Unfair and negative behavior toward a group and its members is calleddiscrimination.An eagerness to believe that victims of a natural disaster are being punished by God for their sins is best explained in terms ofthe just-world phenomenon.The set of people perceived as different from "us" is called a(n)outgroup