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CJST 334 - Exam 4 (Chapters 8&9)
Terms in this set (59)
criminality is a function of people's interactions with various organizations and institutions in society
Social process approach
Research indicates that a majority of ______________ and ____________ are people who grew up in a dysfunctional families, who failed at school, work, and in marriage
Social process approach emerged in response to earlier criminological theories which contend people commit crime for ___________ or ___________ reasons
psychological or biological
_________ is a function of socialization
Any person regardless of race, class, or gender can be a __________
Family, friends, school, and church add to the _____________
the interaction people have with various organizations, institutions, and processes of society
- Family plays a critical role in the determinant of __________
- Parents who stay together and model a loving relationship produce children with _____________
- lowest delinquency rate
Parents who lack parental deviance, who also effectively control their children in a non-coercive fashion
Institutional Involvement and Belief:
- Religion binds people together and forces to confront the effects of their ___________
- Research results regarding religion vary in their findings: some find religion attendance to be _____________ when to comes to delinquent other studies not religious services are a ___________ inhibitor of crime
- insignificant, significant
Child abuse and crime:
- Link between child abuse, neglect, sexual abuse and __________
- Abused children use ___________ more in personal interactions
- Children from troubled homes exhibit lower levels of ___________
Peer relations "________ of a _________"
- ___________ has powerful effect on conduct both good and bad
- Strong association between ___________ and _____________
- Once taken with "bad crowd" it becomes more difficult to __________ (______ more likely to befriend other delinquent peers)
- peer group
- criminality and criminal peer group
- separate (5x)
- Crime is a product of learning norms, values, and behaviors associated with ______________
- Assumes people are born...
- Criminality stemmed neither from individual trait nor socioeconomic position, but ___________ that can affect any individual in any culture
Social Learning Theory
- criminal activity
- good and learn to be bad
- learned process
Know at least 4 principles' of Differential Association Theory
1. Criminal behavior is learned
2. Learning is a by-product of interacting with others
3. Learning criminal behavior occurs within intimate personal groups
4. Learning criminal behavior involves assimilating the techniques of committing crime, including motives, drives, rationalizations, and attitudes
5. The process of learning criminal behavior involves the same mechanism as any other non-criminal process
6. Criminal behavior and noncriminal behavior express the same needs and values (i.e., to accumulate money or social status)
differential association theory person
occurs when behavior is reinforced by being either rewarded or punished while interacting with others
criminality as a learned process which neutralize conventional values. Individuals how subscribes generally to the morals of society but who is able to justify his own delinquent behavior
- Little difference between criminal and non-criminal, with criminals engaged in...
- Most criminals eventually opt out of the lifestyle as they grow ________
- Criminals temporarily suspend (neutralize) their obedience of ___________ by developing attitudes favorable to ___________
- non-criminal behavior most of the time
- norms, deviant behavior
moral influences that are entrenched in culture but are publicly condemned (ex. Gambling/drinking alcohol to access/tattoos/drug usage)
the shift back and forth between conventional values and criminal activity
Techniques of Neutralization
*1. Denial of responsibility. Forces beyond my control, it wasn't really my choice. "I succumbed to peer pressure," or "she made me so angry"
2. Denial of injury. There's no real victim, and therefore there's no harm. "Women like strong men" or "that store is insured"
*3. Denial of the victim. "Women who hitch-hike are asking for it." (some ethnic/racial/or religious group) "the victim deserved whatever they get."
4. Condemnation of the condemners. "The police break the laws." "Judges are corrupt." "How do you think the rich got their money."
*5. Appeal to higher loyalties. There's a hierarchy or moral values, some are more values than others. Individuals put loyalty into their peer group above the rules of the larger society.
human behavior is controlled through close association with institutions and individuals
Social Control Theory
Social Control Theory
- By exploiting the process of socialization and social learning, individuals build ___________ and reduce the inclination to indulge in antisocial behavior
- If moral codes are internalized and individuals are tied to a stake in their wider community, they will voluntarily limit their propensity to...
- commit criminal acts
Human behavior is controlled by their attachment and commitment to conventional institutions, individuals, and processes
Social bond theorists
requires one to obey the law
Commitment to conformity
Know the principles' of the Social Bond Theory
Travis Hirschi links criminality to the weakening of social bonds
- Attachment (sensitivity to and interest in others)
- Commitment (time, energy, and effort into conventional activities)
- Involvement (insulates people from the lure of crime)
- Belief (moral respect for law and social values)
- People are given a variety of symbolic labels that define the whole person (labels)
- Negative labels stigmatize and reduce one's self-image
- Social groups create a positive and negative labels
o Symbolic interaction - communication via symbols
- Labels may maintain and amplify criminal behavior
Social Reaction Theory
- Those with ____________ penalize the ____________
- ____________ punished more severely than ______________
- Deviant criminal behavior persists to the degree in which that act is ______________
- social power, powerless
- street crimes, white-collar crimes
- rewarded or punished
- Labels produce stigma
- Retrospective reading: reassessment of ones past to fit a current generalized label
- Effects on self image, how ones sees themselves
- Dramatization of evil: labels become one's identity; stigmatized offenders reevaluate their identities
Social Reaction Theory (Labeling Theory)
reassessment of ones past to fit a current generalized label
Primary and Secondary Deviance
a norm violation with little or no long-term influence (shoplifting, pot smoking, underage drinking)
deviant behavior is detected/addressed by social control agents who apply a negative label. One's identity is transformed to deviant (criminal charge sought)
diversion programs to change ones label (DWI or Mental Health Court, Head Start Programs)
Social Conflict Theory
_____________ - wrote communist manifesto in 1848
Economic structures within society control all...
____________ - denotes a position in relation to others
____________ - ability of persons and groups to control behavior of others, to shape public opinion and to define deviance
- Karl Marx
- human relations
- social class
Productive forces and productive relations
- Marx focused on economic conditions of a...
- Marx noted the character of every civilization is determined by its mode of...
- capitalist system
owners of the means of production
nonproductive members of society
technology, energy sources, material resources
laboring class produce goods that exceed wages in value
Marx on crime
- Viewed crime as a __________ of the __________ individual against the ___________
- ______________ - in capitalist systems, individuals are not employed to their true potential or lost employment to machines/modernization they become demoralized and are subject to all forms of crime
- struggle, isolated, current conditions
Social Conflict Theorists - view crime as a function of...
social conflict and economic rivalry
- Government plays a role in creating a crimogenic environment
- Conflict emerges from having opposing interests or competing for limited resources
- Group and personal power shape criminal law
- The greater the political and economic power of a group that lower their crime rate
- Became popular again in the 1960s, due to the data received on self-report studies. Crime was committed across all social classes not just lower class
Social Conflict Theorists
The contribution of Ralf Dahrendorf
- Society is organized into two groups: Those who possess ______________ and those who ______________
- Society is a tapestry that is woven together by different sets of...
- authority for social domination and those who lack authority and are dominated
- power and interests
Unified Conflict Theory
- Every society is subject to change
- Every society displays social conflict
- Every element in society renders a contribution to its disintegration and change
- Every society is based on coercion by some of its members
Know what Critical Criminology is and the fundamentals
Critical criminology - crime is a function of modern corporate capitalism who yearns to produce more surplus value which produces social conflict
- The poor engage in street crimes, whereas the wealthy are involved in acts either not defined as crimes or difficult to detect
- Due to where they live, the rich are insulated from street crimes
- Marginalization - due to being thrust outside the economic mainstream, a larger porting of the population is forced to live in areas conducive to crime
- The poor are controlled through incarceration, whereas the middle class is diverted from caring by the upper classes who create a public fear of the lower class
- Constant struggle between business and moral interests
o Environment v. Capitalist
Critical Criminology has 2 branches
Instrumental and Structural
- Views criminal law and the criminal justice system as instruments for _______________ as have-not members of society
- The state is the tool of ___________
- Capitalism serves the interests of the powerful and rich, enabling them to impose their...
- controlling the poor
- morality on society
The Structural View
Relationship between ________ and __________ is ___________
- Framework that sees society as a ______________ whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability
- The law does not always work on behalf of the...
- ________ is designed to keep the capitalist system operating efficiently
- Anyone or any company who takes too big a piece of the pie is targeted for...
o Long prison sentences for insider trading is a warning to capitalists that they must... (Barnie Madoff)
o Break up of big companies such as: AT&T, Microsoft, and standard oil evens playing field
law and capitalism, unidirectional
- complex system
- play by the rules
Critical Feminist Theory
Analyze the power relationship between...
- ___________ view gender inequality stemming from the unequal power of men and women in a capitalist society
- ____________ devalue the work of women
- Men control women both...
- Women produces far more surplus value than men do for capitalist
- Females are often sanctioned more harshly than males for offense related to ____________
dominant and subordinate cultures
- critical feminist
- patriarchal systems
- economically and biologically "double marginality"
Power control theory - ___________
- Crime and delinquency are a function of: ________________
- In _____________ families, fathers are breadwinners, mothers have menial jobs and are expected to control the behavior of daughters while son are given greater freedom (absent father)
- In ____________ both the husband and wife share similar positions of power. The type of family produces daughters whose law violating behavior mirrors their brother's behavior
- A) class position (power), B) family functions (control)
- "egalitarian families"
peacemaking criminology, reintegrative shaming, restorative justice
o Main purpose of criminology is to...
o Draws inspiration from...(Quakers/Zen)
o __________ encourages criminality rather than ____________ it
o Try to find _______________ (mediation and conflict resolution) to crime and other social problems
- a peaceful society
- religious and philosophical teachings (Quakers/Zen)
- Punishment, deterring
- humanist solutions
o Punishments should focus on the offender's ____________ rather than ____________ of the offender
o Suggests ___________ is a powerful tool of informal social control
o Bestowing stigma can have a...
o Offenders begin to recognize their...
o Shaming must be brief followed by ceremonies of...
o Used in __________, these types of programs strive to improve relationships with members of the community who have been harmed by students actions
- behavior, characteristics
- deterrent effect
- wrongdoing and shames themselves
- forgiveness and repentance
____________ Justice (property offenders)
o Contends that the community needs to hold offenders ____________ to put right their harms
- ________________ are central to the justice processes
- ______________ is to restore the _______________
- The offenders has a personal _____________ to victims and community for crimes committed
- Does ________ support the punishment of __________________
- Victims and community
- 1st priority, community
- not, probation or incarceration
Most difficult task of balancing:
needs of the offender v. those of their victim
men control women with economically and biologically
can harm and diminish both the public and private self
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