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Agricultural Revolution

A time when new inventions such as the seed drill and the steel plow made farming easier and faster. The production of food rose dramatically.

Factory System

production of goods in a factory through the use of machines and a large number of workers


the development of industries for the machine production of goods


apparatus used to communicate at a distance over a wire (usually in Morse code)

Spinning Jenny

A machine that could spin several threads at once


transport by railroad, Networks of iron (later steel) rails on which steam (later electric or diesel) locomotives pulled long trains at high speeds. First railroads were built in England in the 1830s. Success caused a railroad building boom lasting into the 20th Century (704)


An economic system in which government owns some factors of production and participates in answering economic questions. It offers some security and benefits to those who are less fortunate, homeless, or under-employed.


the economic and political theories of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels that hold that human actions and institutions are economically determined and that class struggle is needed to create historical change and that capitalism will ultimately be superseded

Popular Sovereignty

The concept that political power rests with the people who can create, alter, and abolish government. People express themselves through voting and free participation in government


the social class between the lower and upper classes


the social process whereby cities grow and societies become more urban

Standard of Living

a level of material comfort in terms of goods and services available to someone


an economic system based on private ownership of capital

Child Labor

using children to work in factories and businesses


individuals who start new businesses, introduce new products, and improve management techniques

Cottage Industry

Manufacturing based in homes rather than in a factory, commonly found before the Industrial Revolution.

Robert Owen

Welsh industrialist and social reformer who founded cooperative communities (1771-1858)

Friedrich Engels

socialist who wrote the Communist Manifesto with Karl Marx in 1848 (1820-1895)

Jeremy Bentham

English philosopher and jurist

John Stuart Mill

English philosopher and economist remembered for his interpretations of empiricism and utilitarianism (1806-1873)

Congress of Vienna

conservative, reactionary meeting, led by prince metternich, restore europe to prerevolution time


a political or social philosophy advocating the freedom of the individual, parliamentary systems of government, nonviolent modification of political, social, or economic institutions to assure unrestricted development in all spheres of human endeavor, and governmental guarantees of individual rights and civil liberties.

German Confederation

consisted of 38 sovereign states recognized by the Vienna settlement, and was dominated by Austria and Prussia (b/c of their size); the confederation had little power and needed the consent of all 38 states to take action.


a large city in northwestern England

Alexander Graham Bell

United States inventor (born in Scotland) of the telephone (1847-1922)

Florence Nightingale

Established sanitary nursing care units. Founder of modern nursing. began professional education of nursing.

Emmeline Pankhurst

Leads movement to win women's vote (suffrage) through militant (radical, sometimes violent) means

Enclosure Movement

The process of consolidating small landholdings into a smaller number of larger farms in England during the eighteenth century.

Domestic System

early industrial labor system in which workers produced goods at home

Steam Engine

1760's; James Watt; engine powered by steam that could pump water from mines 3X as quickly as previous engines

Cotton Gin

a machine for cleaning the seeds from cotton fibers, invented by Eli Whitney in 1793

Assembly Line

Production method that breaks down a complex job into a series of smaller tasks

Mass Production

Process of making large quantities of a product quickly and cheaply


idea that the goal of society should be to bring about the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people


a political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them


the working class


idea that government should play as small a role as possible in economic affairs

Labor Unions

Organizations of workers who, together, put pressure on the employers in an industry to improve working conditions and wages.


a form of socialism that abolishes private ownership

Supply and Demand

an economic concept that states that the price of a good rises and falls depending on how many people want it (demand) and depending on how much of the good is available (supply)

James Watt

Scottish engineer and inventor whose improvements in the steam engine led to its wide use in industry (1736-1819)

Robert Fulton

American inventor who designed the first commercially successful steamboat and the first steam warship (1765-1815)

Karl Marx

founder of modern communism

Thomas Malthus

an English economist who argued that increases in population would outgrow increases in the means of subsistence (1766-1834)

Adam Smith

Scottish economist who advocated private enterprise and free trade (1723-1790)

James Hargreaves

Invented the Spinning Jenny

Klemens von Metternich

The Foreign Minister of Austria; he had the most influence at the Congress of Vienna.


a political or theological orientation advocating the preservation of the best in society and opposing radical changes


Industrial city in Northern England, which greatly increased in population during the Industrial Revolution. Because of the Rotten Boroughs, its interests were underrepresented in Parliament during the early 19th century.

Thomas Edison

American inventor best known for inventing the electric light bulb, acoustic recording on wax cylinders, and motion pictures.

Guglielmo Marconi

Italian electrical engineer known as the father of radio (1874-1937)

Clara Barton

Nurse during the Civil War; started the American Red Cross

Suffrage Movement

movement dedicated to achieving women's right to vote

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