Module 14, Module 15, Module 13, Module 12, Module 11 Quiz, Module 10, Module 9, Module 8 Prisons and Capital Punishment, Module 7 Global Economic Inequality, Module 6 Feminist Ethical Theory or Ethics of Care, Module 5, Module 4 Kant, Module 3 Utili...

There is no argument whether it is a violation of animal rights if we breed an animal, hunt them, or eat them.
Click the card to flip 👆
1 / 200
Terms in this set (200)
Using contraception is immoral according to natural law theory.TrueAccording to Kant, sex is permissible outside of marriage if the two people are committed to one another.FalseGiven a definition of sex as coitus, homosexual sex is conceptually impossible. This means that homosexual sex cannot be immoral, because it isn't sex at all.TrueAn open marriage is defined asA marriage where sexual exclusivity is not expected.The absolute definition of sex is penile vaginal penetration, or coitus.FalseIf someone's end of life care wishes are unknown for whatever reason, the centrality of autonomy in bioethics requires that decisions for that patient's care be based on wishes they have expressed in the past.TrueAutonomy means:self-determinationPhysician assisted dying requires that:a lethal injection be administered by the physician.The practice of a physician providing the means for a person with decision-making capacity to take his or own life, usually with a prescription for barbiturates that patient takes himself or herself, is called:Physician Assisted DeathThe centrality of autonomy concerning end of life care is not criticized for recognizing that humans are part of a complex network of relationships.FalseThe conservative opposition to abortion is based on the idea that the fetus is human being from the moment of conception.TrueThe Dobbs v. Jackson Women's Health SCOTUS ruling allows for a medical exception to abortion bans if the life of the mother is at risk.FalseIVF treatments could be impacted by the Dobbs ruling, because of the routine practice of discarding embryos.TrueFetal movements are a stage of fetal development known asquickeningWhich position would be consistent with the idea that an early fetus is not a person?ModerateThe result of Citizens United is that corporations are now limited in the amount of funds that they can spend on political advertising.FalseFriedman thinks that for a CEO to act in accordance with social responsibility indicates that they have not convinced others that this action is necessary, and failed to acquire political unanimity.TrueMilton Friedman thinks that if a CEO acted in accordance with social responsibility with company funds that he would be:spending someone else's money.Schwenkenbecher argues that business do not have any special obligation to mitigate climate change.FalseThe Citizens United ruling resulted in the creation of PACS. PACS and Super PACS are primarily funded by whom?wealthy individual donorsLawrence Blum insists that every instance of racial conflict, insensitivity, discomfort, miscommunication, exclusion, injustice, or ignorance should be called racist.FalseCurrently, blacks and dark-skinned racial minorities lag well behind whites in virtually every area of social life; they are about three times more likely to be poor than whites, earn about 40 percent less than whites, and have about an eighth of the net worth that whites have.TrueSome philosophers, known as race skeptics, believe that race has a physical scientific basis and argue that the concept of race should be the main focus of science.FalseThe traditional idea about race is that it consists of heritable biological features common to all members of a racial group—features that explain the character and cultural traits of those members. However, most scientists and philosophers believe that this view is false.TrueAccording to Carl Cohen, "No matter who the beneficiaries may be or who the victims, preference on the basis of race is morally wrong. It was wrong in the distant past and in the recent past; it is wrong now; and it will always be wrong." Cohen's position rejects strong affirmative action policies on nonconsequentialist grounds.TrueAbolitionistsThose who wish to abolish capital punishmentRetentioniststhose who wish to retain the death penaltyPunishmentThe deliberate and authorized causing of pain or harm to someone thought to have broken a lawCapital punishmentPunishment by execution of someone officially judged to have committed a serious, or capital, crimeRetributivismThe view that offenders deserve to be punished, or "paid back," for their crimes and to be punished in proportion to the severity of their offensesTwo views of punishment:The sole reason we should punish the wrongdoer is because he morally deserves punishment; his desert is the only justification required. The only proper justification is the good consequences for society that the punishment of offenders will bring—most notably, the prevention of future crimes and the maintenance of an orderly society.Capital punishment throughout the worldMost countries have officially abolished the death penalty or simply stopped using it. The nations not using capital punishment include Canada, Mexico, and all Western European countries. In 2013, most of the executions around the world were carried out by Iran (369), Iraq(169), and Saudi Arabia (79).1972, Furman v. Georgia:The Supreme Court ruled that capital punishment as it was then being applied in certain states was unconstitutional.1976, Woodson v. North Carolina:The Court declared mandatory death sentences unconstitutional.2002, Atkins v. VirginiaThe Court held that the execution of mentally retarded persons is cruel and unusual punishment and is therefore unconstitutional.First-degree murder:Killing (1) with premeditation; (2) while performing a major crime (felony); or (3) involving particular egregious circumstances such as the deaths of several people or of a child or police officerSecond-degree murder:Killing without premeditation but with some degree of intentManslaughterunlawfully killing another without planning in advanceRetentionist viewsUtilitarian: The death penalty achieves overall utility through prevention—preventing the criminal from striking again. The death penalty can achieve overall utility through deterrence—the dissuading of possible offenders from committing capital crimes.Abolitionist responsesThe evidence for capital punishment's prevention or deterrence effect is very weak. Even if the death penalty is a more severe punishment than life in prison, it does not follow that the death penalty deters murderers better.Pojman's "commonsense" case for deterrenceIt is obvious that most people want to avoid jail and that long sentences will deter most potential criminals better than short ones—and that there are good reasons to believe that the death penalty deters better still.Van den Haag's retentionist argumentIf we use the death penalty, we risk killing convicted murderers (and saving innocent lives) If we abolish the penalty, we risk bringing about the deaths of innocent victims (and saving the lives of murderers) If we must risk something, it is better to risk the lives of convicted murderers than those of innocent people. Thus, our best option is to retain the death penaltyResponse to Van den Haag's argument:The retentionist fails to take into account the possibility that the death penalty could encourage violent crime instead of just deterring it Violent criminals who know they are likely to get the death penalty may commit murder to avoid being captured. Capital punishment has a brutalizing effect on society.Abolitionist viewsUtilitarian More net happiness is created in society by sentencing murderers to life in prison without parole than by executing them. The death penalty is too costlyNonconsequentialist viewsAbolitionist Everyone has a right to life, even hardened criminals, and the death penalty is a violation of this right. Retentionist response: People do indeed have a right to life, but this right is not absolute.Nonconsequentialist views 2Abolitionist: • Our penal system is inherently unjust, sometimes executing innocent people. Retentionist response: • Injustice does not stem from the intrinsic nature of the institution of capital punishment; it results from the administration of the death penalty.Nonconsequentialist views 3Retentionist: • Offenders should be punished because they deserve to be punished. Punishment is a matter of justice, not social utility. • Capital punishment (for the crime of murder)shows respect for persons. Abolitionist response: • Penal retribution is not justice—it is revenge.An abolitionist argument:1. If the death penalty discriminates against blacks, it is unjust. 2. If the death penalty is unjust, it should be abolished. 3. The death penalty discriminates against blacks. 4. Therefore, the death penalty should be abolished.The United Nations has called for a moratorium on the death penalty.TrueCapital punishment successfully deters serious violent crimes.FalseSelect an argument that is made in favor of the death penalty.All of these are arguments in favor of the death penalty.African Americans are more likely than white Americans to be arrested; once arrested, they are more likely to be convicted; and once convicted, and they are more likely to experience lengthy prison sentences.TrueIn terms of capital punishment, retribution is the punishment of the guilty.TrueNozick's Entitlement Theory and his Principles of JusticeJustice in acquisition: the appropriation of natural resources that no one has ever owned before. The best-known such principle, someversion of which Nozick seems to endorse, is the one enshrined in Locke's theory of property, according to which a person (being a self-owner) owns his labor, and by "mixing his labor" with a previously unowned part of the natural world (e.g. by whittling a stick found in aforest into a spear) thereby comes to own it.J ustice in transfer: The second principle would be a principle of justice in transfer, governing the manner in which one might justly come toown something previously owned by another. Here Nozick endorses the principle that a transfer of holdings is just if and only if it isvoluntary, a principle that would seem to follow from respect for a person's right to use the fruits of the exercise of his self-owned talents,abilities, and labor as he sees fit. Justice in rectification: The final principle would be a principle of justice in rectification, governing the proper means of setting right pastinjustices in acquisition and transfer.Entitlement Theory: Anyone who got what he has in a manner consistent with these three principles would, Nozick says, accordinglybe entitled to it - for, his having abided by these principles, no one has any grounds for complaint against him.The Great Gatsby CurveMore Inequality is associated with less mobility across the generations.Inequalityincreases environmental degradation (affects poor the most) increases health risks reduces the normal opportunity range of a person. Fewer opportunities for betterment exist.Redistribution Objection 1By redistributing, incentive to work goes down, productivity decreases, and the economic pie shrinks. Taxation is not as bad as forced labor If taxed, you could work less and pay fewer taxes. Under forced labor you cannot Libertarian reply: why should the state force you to make that choice?Redistribution Objection 2Unjust because violation of rights. Taking money without consent is coercive. This is a good reason to persuade the wealthy to help the poor of their own free choice, butnot a justification for coercion.Redistribution Objection 3Jordan doesn't play alone. He owes a debt to those who contribute to his success. Sure, but those other people have been paid the market value for their choices. Even if Jordan does owe them something, it is hard to justify taxing him.Redistribution Objection 4Jordan is not really taxed without his consent Democratic consent is not enough. Should the majority be able to tax the minority? Take property or liberty?Redistribution Objection 5Jordan is extraordinarily lucky. his talents are not his he does not own them. If he doesn't, then he does not own himself. If he doesn't own himself, then who does?The minimal stateThe idea that the role of the state must be restricted in order to preserve individual liberty. No paternalism, no morals legislation, no income or wealth redistribution. Minimal state services. The poor need the money moreNozick's TheoryA person who acquires a holding in accordance with the principle of justice in acquisition is entitled to that holding A person who acquires a holding in accordance with the principle of justice in transfer, from someone else entitled to the holding, is entitled to the holding. No one is entitled to a holding except by(repeated) applications of 1 and 2. Nozick says that there is nothing wrong with inequality. Just so long as there is justice in holding and acquisition.Milton FriedmanThose who advocate a free market are market libertariansJordanIf I own myself, I own my labor. If I own my labor, I am entitled to the fruits of my labor. Nozick would say it would be unjust to take some of Jordan's money and redistribute it To redistribute any of it is to say we (the community) are part owners of himSocial ContractA voluntary agreement among individuals to secure their rights and welfare by creating a government and abiding by its rules. Rawls is another social contract theorist. He advocates using the veil of ignorance to figure out what the best social contract would be likeVeil of Ignorancemaking decisions with a blind eye to extraneous factors that could affect the decision Suppose we gather to figure out what kind of society to make. After we decide, our lives begin. Before we decide, we don't know whether we will be rich or poor, smart or dull, our race, sex, or ethnicity. We don't know if we'll be healthy or frail. The ONLY things we know are things that we need to know to figure out how to make a society—nothing more.ContractsContracts are binding but may not always be enough. Problems with consent—what counts as consent, and when is consent valid? Baseball cards, 78. Another problem—contracts that are beneficial are not always good contracts, especially when we don't agree to themRawlsWe wouldn't choose utilitarianism because we would not want to chance being repressed We wouldn't want to find ourselves in poverty either. Even if inequalities existed in wealth, we would want the worst off to still be decently well off.Rawls' Two PrinciplesFirst Principle: Each person has the same indefeasible claim to a fully adequate scheme of equal basic liberties, which scheme is compatible with the same scheme of liberties for all; Second Principle: Social and economic inequalities are to satisfy two conditionsObjection 1 IncentivesThe talented can benefit from their talents only insofar as it makes the least well off better off than they were before. Won't they work less, lacking incentive? For Rawls, inequalities are just only insofar asthe inequality benefits the least well off, not because Jordan or CEO's deserve to make moreObjection 2 EffortOur talents are not entirely of our own doing. Objection: But what about all the hard work done in developing those talents?Rejecting Moral DessertIf Rawls is right, then we must reject moral dessert, or the idea that we are entitled to the fruits of our efforts Two reasons My talents are not entirely my own The qualities that a society values at any time is also arbitrary (paying basketball players vs. paying teachers).Singer's Central Argument• The way that affluent countries react to the need for foreign aid cannot be justified .• Most of us feel no obligation to help alleviate suffering abroad. • We need to alter how we look at our moral conceptual scheme .• As a result, we need to alter our way of life, which we largely take for granted.Singers Central ArgumentP1 Suffering and death from lack of food, shelter, and medical care are bad. P2 General Principle: If it is in our power to prevent something bad from happening, without thereby sacrificing anything of comparable moral importance, we ought, morally, to do it. P3 (I can prevent people's dying of starvation by giving more money to famine relief than I currently give.) P4 (By giving more money to famine relief than I currently give, I would not be sacrificing anything morally comparable to the evil of dying of starvation.)Basic PremisesP1 Suffering and death from lack of food, shelter, and medical care are bad.• This much is just assumed, and Singer does not provide an argument for the premise.P 2 General Principle: If it is in our power to prevent something bad from happening, without thereby sacrificing anything of comparable moral importance, we ought, morally, to do it.• Singer allows that this principle could be softened to cover "something very bad from happening...Drowning Child ExampleIf I am walking past a shallow pond and see a child drowning in it, I ought to wade in and pull the child out. This will mean getting my clothes muddy, but this is insignificant, while the death of the child would presumably be a very bad thingHow Far Does the General Principle Extend?• Is your tuition money morally significant? • Is your car morally significant? • Is your time morally significant? • Is your freedom morally significant?J.O. UrmsonWe need to have a basic moral code that is not too far beyond the capacities of the ordinary man, or there will be a general breakdown of compliance within our societyIncome and wealth inequality are both doing what in the United States? Static Wildly fluctuatuing Rising FallingRisingAccording to the Council on Foreign Relations, black Americans were never systematically denied mortgages, leading to housing segregation and a disparity in home ownership.FalseAccording to the Council on Foreign relations, there are not large wealth and income gaps across racial groups due to slavery and racist economic policies.FalseAccording to Nozick, inequality is: a consequence of choosing unjust principles in the original position. a way for people to express their love of the free market. fine, so long as there was no coercion or deceit. unjust.fine, so long as there was no coercion or deceit.Rawls refers to his theory as:justice as fairnessAnnette Baier- Baier is critical of theories that present personhood as a test that some entities pass and others fail. She believes that personhood tests often reflect the narrow values of those who design them. - Personhood • Men follow an idea of justice • Women follow a sense of trust or caringFeminist ethics challenges the traditional view of western morality in four additional ways. First:The dubious record of liberal morality:- Has not always considered women as morally considerable - Kant: Women were not rational creatures - Liberal ethical theories were sometimes used to justify oppressionFeminist ethics challenges the traditional view of western morality in four additional ways. Second:Inattention to the presence of inequality or a false pretense of equality:- Old ethical theories removes moral agents from unequal power dynamics, but of course we exist in a world where we are not often equal to those we have relations to!Feminist ethics challenges the traditional view of western morality in four additional ways. Third:Exaggeration of scope of choice, or the inattention to unchosen relations- We don't choose many of our relationships(parents, family, co-workers) - All of these relations constrain the choices we have available to us. Some choices that old ethical theories say we should make may not even be availableFeminist ethics challenges the traditional view of western morality in four additional ways. Fourth:Challenges rationalism: That we need not worry what passions a person has so long as they are controlled by a rational will - Our choices are often not based on reason - The feelings of a person are also morally considerable; they are not simply part of a moral calculation, or a casualty of a moral lawCaringRequires commitments We take on these commitments by becoming engrossed in the other person We recognize that this kind of caring is superior Active creation & nourishing of empathetic & caring relationshipsRELATIONSHIPS ARE ETHICALLY PRIMARY• 1. Condition of possibility for individuals (individuals are social beings) • 2. Condition of possibility for social cooperation• (cooperation presupposes social relationships)POSITIVE RELATIONSHIPSEMPATHETIC - active direct experiencing of another's feelings, often to the extent that the very concept of other no longer exists. CARING - showing care and concern for other peopleHOW do we test whether one is creating & nourishing positive relationships?General Test = Are they/you acting with EMPATHY FOR ALL & COMMITED CARING IN ANDFOR RELATIONSHIPSSpecific tests = Are they/you acting so that ...1. Discerning how to act with empathy for all others affected by our actions 2. Living in a way that expresses care for others 3. Doing no harm even if we are not certain we can do any good - maintaining relationships even if cannot "improve" them 4. Ensuring decisions are made in an open and inclusive manner.First wave feminists focused on:voting rightsRelational theory focuses on relational autonomy exclusively.FalseBaylis and Walker argue that the formation of the self and social identity are what kind of social process?ongoingAccording to Crenshaw, it is possible for people to be very complex, so that some aspects of their identity are privileged, while other aspects are oppressed.TrueOne objection to an ethics of care is that it reinforces gender stereotypes.TrueNichomachean Ethica collectionof Aristotle's notes, apparently editedby his son, NichomachusVirtueDoing something well or with excellenceIntellectual Virtuestheoretical wisdom scientific reasoning intuitive understanding practical wisdom/practical reason prudence craft knowledge, skill, artMoral VirtuesCourage, Temperance, Generosity, Magnificence, Magnanimity, Right ambition, Good Temper, Friendliness, Truthfulness, Wit, and JusticCouragethe mean between being a coward and being rashVirtues are attained or acquired by practice and habitWe become just by doing just acts, generous by generous acts, temperate by temperate acts, do we know what acts are just or friendly in the first place?We learn by observation We ask a virtuous person We use prudence to find the mean, or the right amount of an action, the right time for an action, the right object (immediate and or distant object)for an action, the right manner of acting, etc.Moral virtues are not habits; they are:dispositions to act that are acquired by habituation. purposive dispositions, lying in a mean determined by reasonTo posses a virtue isto hold a complex mental framework of the right feelings, attitudes, understanding, insight, experience ,etccontinentIf we do what is right despite contrary inclination, Aristotle calls our conditionIncontinentIf we try but fail to do what we know we should, we are called incontinent.viciousIf we have no interest even in trying to do what we know we should, we are called viciousWhy is theoretical reason highest?1)It has little in common with animal nature 2)It is more god-like 3)Practical reason exists for its sakeThe best translation for eudaimonia is probably understood as human flourishing.TrueAristotle was a(n):teleologistVirtue ethics is an agent centered moral theory.TrueAccording to Aristotle, the good life for a human being is achieved when we act in accordance with our:sense of reasonThe telos of a thing is its function.TrueKant Rejects 2 Approaches to JusticeHe rejects the welfare approach. He rejects the virtue approach.Autonomy:an action which is determined by the subject's own free choice (see will)HeteronomyThe opposite of autonomy. It meansI act according to outside influenceMotiveWe need to do the right things for the rightreasonsWhat makes the will good?when actions are chosen out of duty, not inclinationWhat does it mean to act out of inclination?To do something because it makes you feel good or because you hope to gain something from it.What does it mean to act out of duty?to do something out of respect for the moral lawCategorical Imperative:An unconditional moral obligation that is binding in all circumstances andis not dependent on a person's inclination or purpose.Hypothetical ImperativeA principle stating the action required to attain a desired goalPerfect DutyA perfect duty is a duty with no exceptions. Not performing this duty is a moral wrong.Imperfect DutyAn imperfect duty is a duty that it may be morally right to perform, but not in every circumstance.Kingdom of Ends formulationAct in accordance with the maxims of a universally legislative member of a merely possible realm of endsAccording to Kant, our action is moral when we act in accordance with duty.TrueAccording to Kant, moral "oughts" are:categoricalUnder a deontological theory, actions driven by desires and inclination are moral.FalseKant is considered a(n):rationalistA hypothetical imperative is the kind of imperative that does not have moral content.TrueUtilitarianismidea that the goal of society should be to bring about the greatest happiness for the greatest number of peopleHedonismpursuit of pleasure, especially of the sensesJeremy BenthamBritish philosopher and economist who advocated utilitarianismHedonistic UtilitarianismThe right action is the one that maximizes pleasure and minimizes pain for all individuals affected by the actionHedonic calculusAn algorithm for measuring pleasure and pain.Bentham's Utilitarianismwhen deciding what to do, the right thing to do is that action which creates the most pleasureMill's Utilitarianismgreatest good for the greatest number that quality of pleasures is crucial in deciding what is right, not mere quantity.Rule utilitarianThe idea is that we should create aset of rules that, if followed, would produce the greatest amount of total happiness.Strong Rule UtilitarianismGuidance from the set of rules that, if followed, would promote the greatest amount of total happiness must always be followedWeak Rule UtilitarianismGuidance from the set of rules that, if followed, would promote the greatest amount of total happiness can be ignored in circumstances where more happiness would be produced by breaking the rule.teleologicalethical theory concerned with outcome, whether an action produces greater good in the worldrelativisticViewing entities as they relate to something else. Cultural relativism is the view that cultures have merits within their own historical and environmental contexts.Peter Singerfamous current utilitarian theorist. His version says that what improves a person's life is entirely determined by the satisfaction of their preferences. Satisfying these improves your life, and is the right thing to do. What is most right is whatever actions produces a set of consequences that maximizes everyone's preferences being satisfied.The Problem of Wrong Intentions is meant to illustrate a strength of utilitarianism where one can act wrongly but bring about the best set of consequences inadvertently.TrueEpicurus was a hedonist who believed that:pleasure was an intrinsic good.Bentham is an act utilitarian.TrueEpicurus was the philosopher who came up with the experience machine thought experiment.FalseBentham's utilitarianism is considered:relativisticMORAL ABSOLUTISMthe position that there are universal ethical standards that apply to actions regardless of context.Divine Command Theorya theory asserting that the morally right action is the one that God commandsNatural Law Theorya theory asserting that the morally right action is the one that follows the dictates of natureTHE EUTHYPHRO DILEMMAIs the pious loved by the gods because it is pious, or is it pious because it is loved by the gods?DOCTRINE OF DOUBLE EFFECTthe principle that performing a good action may be permissible even if it has bad effects, but performing a bad action for the purpose of achieving good effects is never permissible; any bad effects must be unintendedDivine command theory is internally consistent, because though God has issued multiple commands, they do not contradict.False?Divine command theory still works as a viable moral theory when there is disagreement among people of different religious faiths.True?Divine command theory is a utilitarian theory that sees moral obligation as equivalent to, and dependent on, the commands of God.True?Moral autonomy is not emphasized as part of divine command theory.True?In philosophy, someone who thinks God exists is called a:Theist?descriptive claimjust describes somethingprescriptive claimsuggests what someone should do, or whats appropriateprudentialrelates to our personal reasons for doing things.It might be easier or just "make sensThought ExperimentsSimplified, hypothetical versions of real-life situationsThe Trolley ProblemA thought experiment in ethics, first introduced by Philippa Foot in 1967. The general form of the problem is this: Person A can take an action which would benefit many people, but in doing so, person B would be unfairly harmed. Under what circumstances would it be morally just for Person A to violate Person B's rights in order to benefit the group?Moral Realisman inflexible view that behaviors are either right or wrong, with no in-betweenMoral Anti-Realismthere are no objective moral factsDescriptive RelativismThe doctrine that the moral standards people subscribe to differ from culture to culture and from society to society,Metaethical RelativismMoral truths are actually only true relative to specific groups of people.Normative RelativismNo person or culture ought to judge the ethical codes of other cultures as being inferior, nor should any culture intervene in another culture to prevent it from carrying out the specifics of its ethical codeThe Problem of Moral Diversitythe idea that because we observe moraldifferences between cultures, we have evidence that thereis no objective moral standard.Objections to RelativismSome things just seem wrongThe Paradox of ToleranceUnlimited tolerance must lead to the disappearance of tolerancephilosophyA system of beliefs and valuesPhilosophy of MindA branch of philosophy that studies the nature of the mind, mental events, mental functions, mental properties, consciousness, and their relationship to the physical body, particularly the brain.Metaphysicsthe study of the nature of realityHow would you explain what philosophy is to someone?an activity people undertake when they seek to understand fundamental truths about themselves, the world in which they live, and their relationships to the world and to each other.Do you think philosophy is important? If yes, why? If no, why?The study of philosophy enhances a person's problem-solving capacities. It helps us to analyze concepts, definitions, arguments, and problems. It contributes to our capacity to organize ideas and issues, to deal with questions of value, and to extract what is essential from large quantities of informationList some ethical questions.What does my religion or culture say about whether it is acceptable to donate a kidney?Is there a link be between Applied, Normative and Metaethics? Which type of ethics do you think it would be best to study first, and which last?Metaethics is a branch of analytic philosophy that explores the status, foundations, and scope of moral values, properties, and words. Whereas the fields of applied ethics and normative theory focus on what is moral, metaethics focuses on what morality itself is.What is the difference between prudential and moral reasons?Prudential reason for power sharing states that it will bring better outcomes. The moral reasoning of power sharing states that it is valuable to share power.What is meant by the "is/ought" gap? Why is it important to remember when discussing ethical questions?The is-ought gap is a fallacy that attempts to make conclusions about the way things should be based on the evidence about the way things are.What role, if any, does science have in ethical arguments?They help ensure that science is done safely and that scientific knowledge is reliable.What are thought experiments? Why might they be useful to philosophers?They enable us to explore impossible situations and predict their implications and outcomes"Because there are so many different views on moral issues there cannot be any moral truth". What do you think of this line of argument?I think cultural differences shouldn't mean that shouldn'tMetaethicsis the branch of ethics that deals with the nature of moralityMoral realismis the position that there are mind-independent facts about ethics that are true and binding even if we have beliefs to the contrary.NORMATIVE RELATIVISMassume one person's opinion is as good as another's