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Osteopenia and Osteoporosis
Terms in this set (33)
is a certain degree of bone loss normal?
yep, as long as the amount/rate of loss is matched by formation
the densest and healthiest your bones are going to be are between what range
are estrogen and fat good for your bones?
why do women lose more fat than men?
they have a decrease in estrogen from menopause and in general
what two terms refer to abnormal bone loss?
osteopenia and osteoporosis
("poverty in bone"): low bone mass; reduction in bone volume (or mass) to below normal levels
("pores in bone"): lower bone mass that is susceptible to fracture
where are the most common places to have osteopenia and ostseoporosis?
The most common fractures are those involving the vertebrae (spine), proximal femur (hip), and distal forearm (wrist)
is osteoporosis associated with increased morbidity and mortality?
yep, including back pain, loss of height, kyphosis, limited physical activity, restrictive lung disease, abdominal pain, loss of independence, etc.
what is a methods to measure relative bone mass?
dual energy X-ray absorptiometry or DEXA scan (you scan specific parts of the skeleton)
DEXA scan is used to measure bone mineral density (BMD) because density is easier to measure than bone strength in a living patient. BMD is used to estimate bone strength and predict fracture risk.
compared with both peers
young healthy individuals
Values of 0 to−1 are what?
−1 to −2.5 indicate what?
lower than −2.5 indicates what?
hormonal deficiency, age-related changes, or unknown causes
as you age, osteoclasts keep chugging along and doing their job; but, osteoblasts get tired of building. what results"
does calcium deficiency cause osteoporosis?
nope, but it can influence it
Significant decrease in estrogen results in an increase of inflammatory cytokines (from blood monocytes and bone marrow cells), which leads to an increased levels of RANKL, resulting in an increased recruitment of osteoclasts
primary type 1: post-menopausal osteoporosis
senile osteoporosis is what type
primary type 2
"low-turnover variant," meaning that bone loss will have the greatest affect on cortical bone (which has a slower turnover rate than trabecular bone
"high-turnover variant," meaning that bone with a higher rate of turnover and higher surface area will be lost predominantly. Trabecular (aka "spongy") bone will be lost at a higher rate than cortical bone
primary type 1
how do osteoblasts and osteoclasts communicate with each other?
rank and rankL (look this up)
Decrease in blood supply
Decrease in tension (e.g., atrophy or paralysis of skeletal muscle that attaches to a bone; living in zero gravity for long periods of time; already mentioned under supposed pathogenesis of primary osteoporosis)
Hormones (more than just estrogen deficiency)
Drugs (including nicotine, caffeine, alcohol, prescription drugs, illegal drugs, etc.)
risk factors for secondary osteoporosis
what lifestyle factos really encourage and lead to bone loss?
alcohol abuse, low calcium intake, vitamin D insufficiency, excess vitamin A, high salt intake, inadequate physical activity, immobilization, smoking, trauma, exceessive thinness
steroids affect bone mass??
22 yo female athlete presents with hx of amenorrhea, poor diet, osteoporosis. what is your dx?
female thlete triad syndrome
vertebral compression fractures typically occur in who
when do you get a dexa scan
at 50 yo and every five years
a 55 yo female presents to your office with no risk factors. should she get BMD testing?
nope, you need 1 or more risk factors and to be of menopausal age (50-69)
45 yo cauca
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