when a presidential candidate chooses a running mate who can strengthen his chance of being elected by virtue of certain ideological, geographic, racial, ethnic, gender or other characteristics
term for the president as the representative of the people, working for the public interest
chief of state
term for the president as the ceremonial head of the United States, the symbol of all nation
term for the president as commander of the nations armed forces.
group of persons chosen in each State and the District of Columbia every four years who make a formal selection of the president and the vice president
term for the president as the acknowledged leader of the political party that control's the executive branch
an election in which a party's voters choose state party organization's delegates to their party's national convention and/or express a preference for their party's presidential nomination
scheme by which a presidential vacancy is filled
direct popular election
proposal to do away with the Electoral College and allow the people to vote directly for President and Vice President
article 2 of the Constitution, establishes the presidency and gives the executive power for the Federal Government to the president
directive, rule, or regulation issued by a chief executive or subordinates, based upon constitutional or statutory authority and having the force of law
term used to describe a president as an emperor who acts without consulting congress or acts in secrecy to evade or deceive congress
speech given at a party convention to set the tone for the convention and the campaign to come
those means of communication that reach large audiences, especially television, radio, printed publication, and the internet
oath of office
oath taken by the president on the day he takes office, pledging to faithfully execute the office and preserve, protect and defend the constitution
a political party's formal statement of basic principles, stand on major issues, and objection
a pact between the president and the head of a foreign state. it does not require senate approval, but it is a binding agreement with the force of law
release from the punishment or legal consequences of a crime, by the president or governor (legal forgiveness of a crime)
persona non grata
an unwelcome person; used to describe recalled diplomatic officials
the exclusive power of a president to recognize foreign states
an official postponement of the execution of a sentence
a formal agreement between two or more
every bill passed by congress must be brought to the president to be signed into law
War Powers Resolution of 1973
designed to place close limits on the presidents war-making powers
the authority of a court to review decisions of inferior courts
mercy or leniency granted to an offender by a chief executive
power shared by federal and state courts to hear certain cases
the federal courts the congress has formed to exercise the judicial power of the united states, these courts are also called regular courts or article 3 courts
in a civil suit, the person against whom a court action is brought by another in a criminal case; the person charged with the crime
the power of a court to hear a case first, before any other court
in civil law, the party who brings a suit or some other legal action against another in court
federal courts that have been created by congress to hear a much narrower range of cases than those that may come before the constitutional courts, called legislative courts
a case involving a noncriminal matter such as contract dispute or a claim of patent infringement
a court composed of military personnel, for the trial of those accused of violating military law, it serves the special disciplinary needs of the armed forces and are not part of the federal court system
a case in which a defendant is tried for committing a crime that congress has defined by law to be a federal crime
written explanation of the views of one or more judges who disagree with a decision reached by a majority of the court
a court's list of cases to be heard
officially called the opinion of the court; announces the courts decision in a case and sets out the reasoning upon which it is based
court decision that stands as an example to be followed in future, similar case. the court's written opinions are very valuable and important
writ of certiorari
an order by a higher court directing a lower court to send up the record in a given case for review; from the Latin meaning "to be more certain."
why has the wording of article 2, section 1 caused problems? what differing views did the framers hold about the power of the presidency?
it is sketchy, and the most loosely drawn chapter. there was a struggle over the meaning of executive power.
how was the growing complexity of the nation's social and economic life affected presidential power?
the federal government has been in demand to play a larger role in everyday aspects
what opposing views have presidents had regarding their proper role in the job?
theodore roosevelt - do whatever helps the people unless the constitution forbids the action william howard taft - can only do that which is stated in the constitution
how does the responsibility for executing the law give the president great power?
he has to enforce, administer, and carry out the law
why do we know that the framers intended the president to have ordinance power?
it is clearly intended in the constitution, they anticipated the power
why is it important that the president have the power to appoint officials?
he needs to know who will support his cabinet
what role does senatorial courtesy have in the appointment process?
the majority of the senate must approve for the appointment to approve
how did the issue of the removal power result in the impeachment of president andrew johnson?
the tenure of office act in 1867 was passed
what types of agreements can the president make with foreign countries?
he can make treatys
why did the framers include the senate, but not the house, in the treaty making process?
there could be more secrecy, it wasn't as large as the house
what is the power of recognition, and how can the president use it as diplomatic tool?
he acknowledges the legal existence of that country as an equal, they exchange representatives
describe the presidents role in military affairs. give an example of presidential use of the power of commander in chief.
he has authority over the direction of the military, in 1794 theodore roosevelt send the Great White fleet around the world
how do the presidents legislative and judicial powers support the system of checks and balances?
there is a separation of powers, they can check each branch at any time
what are the presidents primary legislative powers?
recommending legislation and veto power
how could the line item veto be added to the presidents legislative powers?
they have the power to cancel specific dollar amounts in spending bills enacted by congress
what are the presidents primary judicial powers?
grant reprieves and pardons for offenses against the US except in cases of impeachment
what kind of clemency did President Gerald Ford give to former President Richard Nixon?
a full, free and absolute pardon for all offenses against the US
why did the framers see a need for a national judiciary?
they needed onen central supreme court
identify two provisions that the constitution makes regarding the federal courts and their jurisdictions.
subject matter, parties involved
which courts hear most of the cases in this country, the State courts or the federal courts?
describe the process by which most federal judges are nominated and approved.
the president shall nominate and, by consent of the senate, appoint them
what jurisdiction do the inferior courts have? what kinds of cases do they hear?
lower courts that function beneath the Supreme Court, most of the cases tried in federal courts
when the Supreme Court's docket became overloaded in the late 1800s, hat did congress do to ease the burden?
the court of appeals was created to relieve the Supreme Court from hearing appeals from the district courts
in the federal system, what is a circuit?
region of federal districts
where do most of the cases that reach the federal courts of appeals come from?
district courts from within their circuits, US Tax court, territorial courts
how does the court of appeals for the federal circuit differ from other federal courts of appeals?
they hear cases from all over the country, it is a nationwide jurisdiction
why is it so important for courts to have the power of judicial review? what famous court cases established the Supreme Court's right to exercise the power of judicial review?
they have the power to decide the constitutionality of an act of government, marbury v madison
what kinds of jurisdiction does the Supreme Court have? what kind of cases does it usually accept?
they have both original and appellate, most of its cases come on appeal from the lower federal courts
what is the "rule of four"?
at least four of the nine justices must agree that a case should be put on the court's docket
if the Supreme Court decides not to hear a case, what then becomes the final result in that case?
it may be resent to the lower courts for reconsideration
describe how oral arguments are presented before the Supreme Court.
they convene at 10 AM on Monday - Thursday, lawyers make a 30 minutes presentation
who creates the special courts? why have they been created?
congress, to hear cases involving the expressed powers of congress
under what circumstances can an American citizen sue the United States?
if it has consent from someone in the court
what kind of claims are heard by the court of appeals for veterans claims?
if veteran affairs have been denied, or mishandled valid claims for veteran benefits
which officials does the president appoint?
ambassadors, diplomats, cabinet members, head of independent agencies, federal judges, officers in armed forces