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BIO 320 Lecture 13
Terms in this set (39)
Cell-to-cell communication by extracellular signaling usually involves six major steps:
Signaling molecules operate over various distances in animals. __ signaling is when the target sites are on distant cells.
Signaling molecules operate over various distances in animals. __ signaling is when the target sites are on adjacent cells.
Signaling molecules operate over various distances in animals. __ signaling is when the target sites are on the same cell.
Signaling molecules operate over various distances in animals. Signaling by __ is when the target sites are on the plasma membrane of attached cells.
plasma-membrane attached proteins
Hormones can be classed based on their solubility and receptor location. Hormones with receptors that are located in the cell are called __ receptors.
Hormones can be classed based on their solubility and receptor location. Hormones with receptors that are located on the cell surface are called __ receptors.
Cell-surface receptors belong to four major classes. They are:
1) G-protein coupled
2) Ion channel receptors
3) Tyrosine-kinase linked
4) Intrinsic enzymatic activity
Four common intracellular secondary messengers are:
Protein __ activates proteins through __ while protein __ deactivates proteins through __.
kinase, phosphorylation, phosphatase, phosphorylation
All G protein-coupled receptors contain __ membrane spanning regions with their N-terminus on the __ face and C-terminus on the __ face
7, exoplasmic, cytosolic
There are three major classes of G proteins: __, __, and __
Gs, Gi, Gt
Gs and Gi proteins increase or decrease __ which has a downstream effect on the secondary messenger __
adenylyl cyclase, cAMP
Gs __ adenylyl cyclase and Gi __ adenylyl cyclase
Gt proteins are involved with the __ in our eyes.
G-protein coupled receptors are the main focus in __.
Tyrosine kinase receptors respond primarily to __
Ion channel receptors are common in __ cells
cAMP activates protein kinase __
cGMP activates protein kinase __
DAG activates protein kinase __
IP3 activates __ channels in the ER
Adenylate cyclase is stimulated and inhibited by different __-__ complexes
Some bacterial __ irreversibly modify G proteins
The __ toxin irreversibly modifies G proteins
Kinase cascades allow for __ of hormone signals from a few molecules
G-protein coupled receptors can also regulate __ __ activity
Gt protein coupled receptors are activated by __ in human __ cells
If the ion channel in the rod cell is closed by low levels of __, then there is no stimulation
Rod cells adapt to varying levels of __
In bright light, rod cells are not activated due to the shutting down of the pathway by the protein __
The enzyme responsible for the generating the secondary messengers DAG and IP3 is __
Hormone induced release of Ca2+ from the ER is mediated by __
__ is a very important secondary messenger in various parts of the body including muscles and nerve cells.
When calcium levels rise, the __ of molecules rises.
cGMP mediates local signaling by __ which is a potent vasodilator
nitric oxide (NO)
Nitric oxide is produced by __ __ and it works through the __ pathway to cause relaxation
NO synthase, cGMP
__ links cAMP signals to transcription
Multiple __ __ pathways interact to regulate function
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