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"This study was designed to compare how White, Black, and East Asian were portrayed in advertisements found in fashion magazines directed at adolescent girls." Expectancy theory is based upon the power that negative expectations may have in influencing social reality, Social Comparison theory postulates that people have an inherent need to evaluate their actions and opinions; in the absence of objective criteria, comparison will take place with others who are socially similar, it is reasonable to assume that when people are exposed to media images, they may automatically and unwittingly engage in social comparison
Hypothesis: The representation of Black women would be approximately equal to their actual representation in the population. The representation of East Asian and South Asian women would be underrepresented. Minorities would be represented more often in background and minor roles in the advertisements examined. The product advertised and the beauty type of the model in the advertisement would differ according to race.
Findings: • Classic/Feminine type was more frequently coded for White women (25.8%) than for Black women (18.2%), whereas East Asian women were excluded from the Classic/Feminine category altogether
•Sensual/Sexy type was more frequently used with White models than with Black models. Asian women were absent from the Sensual/Sexy category
•Casual/Sporty type was the beauty type most represented overall, this category was assigned to nearly 60% of Black models and 100% of East Asian models
•Trendy type was used more frequently with White models than with Black or East Asian models
•White models used most in beauty advertisements, Black models were less used
•Black models appeared most often in clothing advertisements, followed by white, east Asian were absent from any beauty or clothing-related advertisements but appeared in most for technology
•When White women were featured in advertisements, they occupied more major roles than did all other women. Black women played a major role in 50% of the advertisements in which they were featured in, whereas East Asian women were featured in minor roles
Implications: Ads. Should be more appropriately representative based on population, low rep. of Asian women may show hostility or a don't-care attitude, feminist theory maintains that magazines directed toward women promote an unrealistic, unattainable beauty ideal that is contingent upon personal dissatisfaction in order to ensure a constant market, whiteness advertised as ideal and normal, Asian women could be pushed towards a White beauty ideal, fair, blonde, blue eyes, but may feel this is beautiful because there are others with dark skin and dark eyes, a preponderance of clothing advertisements in teen magazines may indicate that all women, but particularly Black women, are being constructed in terms of the body
Measuring Women's Body Image and Satisfaction
•Research that has included women of diverse racial/ethnic groups generally finds that black/AA women report slightly higher levels of body satisfaction than white, Asian American, and Latina women
oNo scales, impossible to know if really differences between groups
•White girls socialized with mothers into fat talk (women talk badly about their own bodies to others), not true for black girls
oWhite girls more concerned about thinness, other groups focus on hair texture, skin color body shape vs. size, etc.
•Black parents aim to instill in their children a sense of group pride through repeating messages like "we are proud of who you are" "you are connected to a history that goes back to African royalty" "never be ashamed of your color"
oMay not want to talk about bodies so racial group not seen in bad light
•Effects of body image mainly looked at with young white women, but impact different on different racial groups, sexual orientations, income levels
oRace: Asian women have similar body dissatisfaction to white women, but because of different ideals (didn't want large breasts, wanted eye crease)
oPoor more concerned about features that mark them as poor: scars, missing teeth
oAge: Older women have more negative views of body, don't see as attractive, self-objectification, see body in parts rather than in whole
oPower: white women may want to be thin because it's most associated with power, rather than beauty ideal, this type of power may be unfulfilling, because striving for an ideal that cannot be reached disadvantages women collectively

Beauty Standards as a Justification for Inequality
•Beauty often linked to ideas about goodness and worthiness, dominant groups use claims of beauty to legitimize their subordination of others
oOld people are "gross"
•Observers rate attractive people as more competent, adjusted socially, intelligent
oVisibly disabled looked down upon
•Old women in movies more likely to be seen as negative, bad, ugly, etc.

Power in Social Comparison
•Emphasis on women's appearance as a marker of social worth is complicated by consideration of the other categories of identity, difference, and disadvantage, that shape women's lives
All forms of human communication that do not focus on the actual words: tone of voice, facial expression, how far you stand from another person
oPersonal space: invisible boundary around each person - a boundary that other people should not invade during ordinary social interactions, high ranking employees (men) have more space and low ranking employees (women) have less
oBody posture: females keep legs together and arms and hands close to bodies, males sit and stand with legs apart, hands and arms move away form their bodies, men look more relaxed, women more constrained, women don't swagger when they walk but men do, men less likely to keep erect body posture when talking to others, men use more personal space, postures require greater physical space
oVisual gaze: females typically gaze more at their conversational partners than males do, people gaze at females more than they gaze at males, when two females talk, more moments of eye contact, more moments w/o eye contact with men
oFacial expression: women smile more than men do, gender differences in smiling especially large when people interact with strangers, woman smiles to encourage man to feel comfortable (which works) but man does not smile back to woman to indicate the same thing, but smiling is also a strong predictor of smiling of in women, smile because feel uncomfortable or embarrassed, women more likely to be aware that they are using false smiles, when people perceive an angry woman, they perceive she is actually afraid, people perceive more sadness than anger in a female's ambiguous facial expression/more anger in a male's expression
oDecoding ability: skill in looking at another person's nonverbal behavior and figuring out what emotion that person is feeling, females more accurate, girls better than boys, women also good across gender, also true cross-culturally
Women more likely than men to choose occupations in the "helping professions" such as nursing and social work, helpfulness includes highly-visible activities that are stereotypically masculine and less visible that are feminine
Altruism: providing unselfish help to others who are in need, without anticipating any reward, gender similarities are common although men are more helpful on tasks that are physically dangerous or require expertise in a traditionally "masculine" area
Heroism: risking one's life for the welfare of other people, men more likely to be helpful in dangerous situations, women more likely to be helpful in less dangerous but still risky situations: organ donation, more non-Jewish women helped Jews during holocaust
Gender differences in helpfulness can be explained by social roles: culture's shared expectations about the behavior of a group that occupies a particular social category, ex) men: have more strength/size than women so more likely to perform tasks using these attributes, this heroism is also more public (saving someone from drowning)
Nurturance: kind of helping in which someone gives care to another person, usually someone who is younger or less competent, stereotype suggests women do this, little girls were more interested in baby but some boys were if parents noted that they were tolerant of girlish behavior in boy
Empathy: show it when you understand the emotion that another person is feeling, you experience that same emotion, you are concerned about that person's well-being (only gender differences w/ self reports)
F/m equally empathic when the operational def. requires physiological measures (heart race, pulse, skin conductance, blood pressure)
F/m equally empathic when the operational def. requires nonverbal measures (gestures, observer's face, etc.)
Females more empathetic when self-reported
In general, girls have fewer number of friends, more likely to have friends who don't know each other
Self-disclosure: reveal info. about themselves to another person, girls more likely to do this with their friends, boys more likely to engage in games w/ rules
More similarities in m/m and f/f friendships
Females more likely to just talk, males more on specific tasks
Same degree of satisfaction
Women value self-disclosure more and do it more, bc value talking about feelings
Women report spending more time helping friends
Social constructionists point out that each culture devises its own set of lenses, as a result, cultural communities may differ in the construction of social behaviors such as aggression
Women aggressive in Mexican gangs: in a cultural community that admires physical aggression, gender diff. may disappear as both f/m adopt violent tactics
Physical aggression: intentional aggression that could physically harm another, more likely males
Relational aggression: aggression that could harm another person through intentionally manipulating interpersonal relationships, such as friendships, spreading lie about someone, more common in females, but some studies say no gender differences
Men more spontaneously angry, men more violent to strangers, women violent in relationship but men inflict more injury
If women see themselves as nonaggressive: Less likely to defend themselves, believe they can't, competitiveness associated with aggression so women → less competitive, aggressive seems normal for males, so more aggressive
"This chapter discusses several ways in which the media may serve as a positive force in young women's sexual health and development through the information and models they provide and the opportunities they offer for validation and self-expression."
Four Positive Contributions of the media (be able to identify examples of each):

Positive Contribution 1: Media Can Offer Sexual Information, Magazines
o Anonymous, not awkward to buy, read privately, offer info, people seek out info in them, entertainment-education
o What about the internet?

Positive Contribution 2: Media Can Offer Diverse Sexual Models
o Women connecting to TV characters, but they were undergraduate women so maybe this is just because they are more educated and seek out these characters, intentionally watch, not the best representation
o Is there any evidence that viewers use media characters as models of
o sexual behavior? → this could just be a correlation, girls may like sexual characters because they are more relatable

Positive Contribution 3: Media Offer Vicarious Practice of Dating Norms and Ideals
o For example, fantasizing about media characters (idols) allows girls to experience a fantasy relationship with idols on television without concerns that they will be rejected or will have to engage in activities for which they are not ready, couldn't this also come from books?
o Good for early maturing girls, don't have others to discuss with

Positive Contribution 4: Resisting Through Self-Expression
o Why have I never heard of?
The experience of Aging Varies
• Middle age/midlife: begins around age 40-45
o Doesn't really translate into anything like AARP, drivers license, etc.
• Old age: begins at 65 in the U.S., this is a legal age for benefits
• Women live longer than men, generally: 81 v. 75
o These numbers vary a lot when looking into Intersectionality: race, SES, immigrant status, rural v. city, etc.
• Occupation associated with longest living people: nuns, single women
• Possible reasons for gender difference: biology, occupation, smoking and drinking, violent crime
o Tend to see more older women around
• Words to describe older woman: negative: wrinkly, fragile, but also positive ones: nurturing
Double standard of aging
• Men, as they age, have a much longer career trajectory than women do, based on physical appearance (Hollywood)
• Women asked to cover up aging while men are called, "silver fox"
• Maybelline commercial: all of the women were pretty young, even though trying to look younger: 30-40
• Dos Equi commercial: older man is seen as more attractive, can do whatever he wants
o Women tend to lose sexual appeal earlier
Menopause and the Body
• Menopause: Not having a period for one year: estrogen and progesterone start to decrease in the body, specifically from the ovaries
o Eventually hormone levels get so low that uterine lining stops building up, and then there is nothing to shed and no reason to have a period
o Average age: 50 onset, consistent across culture, nutrition, etc.
• Physical symptoms: menstruation stops, hot flashes (75-80%, but only 10-20% seek help)
o Hypothalamus impacted (this regulates temperature)
• Implications: over 80% in study said can go on with everyday lives during menopause
o Many myths (similar to periods)
Menopause and the Mind: The Myths
• Pray for me, my wife's in menopause, menopausal bitch, danger: menopause at work, I am to of estrogen and I have a handgun, any questions?
o Damaging for women in careers, position at home, etc.
Menopause and the Mind: The Science
• Psychological symptoms: don't really exist, not a lot of evidence of mood swings and depression, none for normal menopause
• Menopause as a neutral or positive event: women reported no more periods, no more pregnancy concerns, no big deal, happiness and relief
• Bottom line: no scientific evidence supporting myth that menopause → moody, anxious, depressed
• But the myth is dangerous: undermines women's authority; distracts from problematic lives, provides add. Explanation ex) oh she forgot because of menopause, not because of just getting older
o Also need for sex ed.: You can still get STDs, especially if not using a condom because no more fear of pregnancy
• Average annual income (2010 Census: Factors in SS, pensions, assets, earnings): women make less
• Women have less work outside the home, no payment for work inside the home, less money towards retirement because didn't make as much money, result is lower lifetime earnings
• Gender differences in income: women with HS education makes much less than man with HS education, biggest gap between men and women with BA or higher (2.1 million vs. 1.4 million)
o Think about all the people who make up this number: like very very rich men are included in this number
o Even when we control for education, gender difference still arises
• Other reasons for older women's lower incomes: women negotiate less than men do, therefore have less salaries and less benefits
o Men have more financial planning, more likely to seek out retirement information
• Many gaps begin because women start at a lower salary because they did not negotiate: same starting offer may have been given to both men and women but men negotiate
• Older women of color: more interdependence: family comes first, multiple generations in one home, multiple care-givers
• Older women as caregivers: 75% of caregivers in our society are women, older women care for the most disabled persons (often husband)
o Sandwiched generation effect: woman taking care of young and parents
o Elderly care a lot of times falls on women, 3x as likely to become caretakers for their parents as their sons
• In older age, women compared to men have greater rates of depression, but women in older age have less depression than younger women
• Women do more taking care of others, part of socialization
• A lot of negative stereotypes for older women, but there are positives: freedom
o Also freedom from gender roles: not expected to be sexually attractive so no longer have to put makeup on and dye hair, etc.
• Some of the 1,000 plus federal rights, protections, responsibilities automatically granted to married couples include: the right to visit a sick spouse in the hospital, make decisions about care during medical emergency, access to pensions, compensation, survivor benefits, sue for wrongful death of a spouse, inherit without a will
Women in the paid Labor Force
• Horizontal sex segregation: women and men tend to hold different kinds of jobs:
o Women nurses, male construction workers
o Gender imbalance in the type of job
• 55% of employed women work in service, clerical and sales positions
o Referred to as "pink collar" employment
o 95% secretaries
• Low pay, considered low status, not many opp. For advancement, not as much autonomy, not exciting, etc.
• 30% employed women work in professional/managerial positions
o Less than 1/3 of attorneys are female
• Blue collar: 15% women
o Plumber, skilled labor, etc.
• Not a high-status but you make a LOT of money, higher degree of autonomy and high self-esteem
• Vertical sex segregation: males tend to occupy higher status and better paid jobs in this field: glass ceiling
o Glass ceiling: rising up through the ranks and then hitting barrier that isn't clearly visible, women hit when trying to advance to the top
• Especially true for women of color
o 24 women out of 500 in Fortune 500
o Very low numbers of women in business beyond middle management, minority in upper management (glass ceiling), 4.2% CEOs, 8.1% top earners, etc.
• Recruitment is not the issue, the problem is about retention and promotion
• Consideration changing "glass ceiling" to maybe a labyrinth: complicated maze
o More than just one barrier, not really invisible, we know where it is, glass implies that it is impenetrable when it is not
• Women more caregivers: taking care of, making sure have clothes and food
• There are women CEOs
o Transformational and transactional styles of work
• Male and female businesses are equally profitable
• Gender Wage Gap: women earn less than men at every level of education
o Latinas make 50 cents to the dollar
o Black women make 60 cents to the dollar
o White women make 70 cents to the dollar
• Why is there a gender-wage gap?
o Not because women are investing less in their careers
o Not because of different levels of education
o Not because of missing work (absenteeism)
o Not because of hours worked
o Not because of seniority
o Not because of reduced hours due to child care
o Not because of maternity leave
• Gender discrimination in the workplace:
o Title VII (7): 1964: made blatant discrimination and discrimination illegal
• Subtle discrimination a lot of times continues
o Affirmative action good for gender
• Women applications tend to be rated lower, less likely to be hired, especially the higher up you go
o How to prevent discrimination against women: give evaluators more time, have more women evaluators, have common standards, etc.
• Possible solutions: comparable worth policies: Reform efforts to pay different jot titles the same wage: instead of equal pay for equal work, equal pay for different work
o Applies to jobs with comparable education, experience, skills, risk, supervisory responsibility, etc.
• Biased research on women: excluded women of color: not intentional, most studies are done where women are primarily white
o Also not many working-class studies