Test 3 Review

Who is Shirley Curry?
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Terms in this set (504)
What is the cornea?- transparent structure - refracts/gathers lightWhat is the lens?- transparent - flexible - avascular - focus on light rays - distance = relaxed ciliary muscle = flat, near = contracted ciliary muscles = bulge - visual accommodationWhat happens to lens when seeing distance?relaxed ciliary muscles = flatWhat happens to lens when seeing near?contracted ciliary muscles = bulgeWhat is visual accommodation?ability to change shape of lens to seeWhat is the vitreous humor?- clear, gel-like - maintain shapeWhat is the aqueous humor?fills chamberWhat is the retina?photosensitive layer at backWhat are components of retina?rods, cones, macula (fovea)What do rods do?- light (intensity) - helpful in low light situationWhat do cones do?color vision (RBG)What does the macula do?sharp visionWhat is the fovea?- small area - sharpest vision - "center of vision"What is the optic nerve?- transmits to brain - bundle of fibers - blind spotWhat are common vision issues?hyperopia, myopia, astigmatismWhat is hyperopia?farsightednessIs hyperopia or myopia more common as we age?hyperopiaWhat is the reason why OA hold things farther away to see?hyperopiaWhat is myopia?nearsightednessWhat is astigmatism?change in cornea shapeBlurry vision and double vision are potential symptoms of having what type of issue?astigmatismWhat are the age-related changes to cornea?- thicker, less curved - affects refractive ability (astigmatism)What are the age-related changes to anterior chamber?- decrease in size - more likely to have draining issues (glaucoma)Glaucoma created issues with what?pressureWhat are the age-related changes to iris?- color fades slightly - decreases in dilation ability (night sight)What are the age-related changes to lens?- thicker, denser, less elastic - visual accommodation - yellowing (color vision) - far-sightedness increases, near-sightedness decreasesWhat are the age-related changes to vitreous humor?- more liquid, less gel - less transparent - "floaters"What are floaters?- cell debris that float in vitreous humor - brain is pretty good at not letting it affect vision - more common in OAWhat are the age-related changes to retina?- blood vessels and capillaries atrophy - loss of rods and cones - chemical light/dark adaption decreases (takes ~10 minutes)What are the age-related changes in vision?- photoreceptors less sensitive (need more light) - visual activity (cornea and lens) - color perception - field of view - light/dark adaption - depth perceptionAs we age, do photoreceptors become more or less sensitive?lessHow does visual activity change as we age?- cornea = refraction issues - lens = visual accommodation issuesWhat happens to color perception as we age?yellowing of lensHow does the field of view change as we age?- narrows - can only focus on what's straight forwardWhat is depth perception?how close/far something isWhat are the implications of age-related changes to vision?- driving (issues with glare, light/dark adaptions, small field of vision) - higher likelihood of injury (trip and fall with decreased field of vision) - regular eye exams essential - reduce exposure to sunlight (susceptible to UV damage wear sunglasses) - difficult with learning and memory (because less able to see/read)How does lasik's work?1. flap is make in cornea, cornea is folded back 2. laser is used to reshape middle of cornea 3. cornea is set back into placeWhat is lasik?changing shape of eye to correct visionTrue or false. Lasik works forever?falseTrue or false. People who have lasik done will most likely need glasses again.trueWhat is the most common age-related eye disorder?cataractsWhat are cataracts?- cloudy or opaque lens - interferes with light raysWhat is the cause of cataracts?- exact course unknown - metabolic change? - proteins of lens?What are the risk factors for cataracts?- high BP - diabetes - excessive sunlight - excessive alcoholWhat are the symptoms of cataracts?- myopia - sensitivity to glare - "halos" around objects - "second sight"What is "second sight"?- temporarily "cancels out" other eye issues - vision may improve for short timeWhat is the treatment of cataracts?- surgery - glasses - contactsWhat is the success rate of surgery for cataracts?95%What is the lens made out of when treating cataracts?plasticWhat does vision look like with cataracts?- blurry or cloudy vision - problems with glare - color may seem fadedWhat is the leading cause of blindness in OA?macular degenerationWhat is the area responsible for sharp vision?maculaWhat are the risks for macular degeneration?age, genetics, sun exposure, CVD, smokingWhat are the causes of macular degeneration?- dry - wetWhat are dry causes of macular degeneration?- macula (retina) gets thinner - photoreceptors dieWhat are wet causes of macular degeneration?new, week blood vessels grow behind retina, leak blood and lipids --> scar tissue --> block photoreceptorsWhat are the symptoms of macular degeneration?- distortion of central vision - lines appear bent - objects appear small or larger - will eventually lose central visionWhat is the treatment for macular degeneration?- laser - anti-inflammatory medication - injections in eye to prevent further damageWhat are the types of glaucoma?- open angle - angle-closure - secondaryWhat does glaucoma cause?- increase pressure - damages optic nerveWhat are the symptoms of glaucoma?- narrowing field of vision - pain - nausea - often no symptoms in early stagesWhat is the treatment for glaucoma?- medications - laser surgeryWhat is glaucoma?impaired outflow of aqueous humorWhich type of glaucoma is the majority of cases?open angleDegenerative changes occur in which type of glaucoma?open angleWhat type of glaucoma is somewhat rare and has a genetic link?angle-closureExplain angle-closure glaucoma.person is born with shallow anterior chamber age --> thickening of lens --> impairedWhat is the cause of secondary glaucoma?- something else - ex. diabetes, inflammation, tumor, etc.Symptoms and treatment for which type of glaucoma are determined by cause?secondaryWhat is the prevention for glaucoma?regular eye exam 40+What is a risk factor for diabetic retinopathy?poorly controlled diabetes (for 20+ years)What is the cause of diabetic retinopathy?damage to blood vessels of retinaHow are blood vessels of retina damaged in diabetic retinopathy?burst --> block light and damage photoreceptorsWhat are the symptoms of diabetic retinopathy?- usually don't appear until at least 3-5 years after onset of diabetes (and if it isn't controlled properly) - cloudy vision - shower of spotsWhat is the treatment for diabetic retinopathy?laser coagulation (blood stoppage)What are the age-related changes to hearing?- more earwax - ossicles, eardrum, and oval window stiffen - death of hair cells in cochlea - presbycusis - decrease in acoustic reflexDo higher pitched sounds affect the hair cells towards the outside or inside of the cochlea more?outsideDo lower pitched sounds affect the hair cells towards the outside or inside of the cochlea more?insideWhat is presbycusis?age-related hearing lossIn presbycusis, are high or low frequency sounds first affected?highWhy does presbycusis occur?hair cells within cochlea become damaged and dieWhy are loud noises more damaging to OA's hearing than YA's?decrease in acoustic reflexWhat is acoustic reflex?contraction of the stapedius in response to loud soundWhen does presbycusis occur?- begins around 40 - generally not significant until 70s-80sPresbycusis affects ___% of those over 75.50What are the population trends around presbycusis?- men are more susceptible (job, hormones) - exposure to noiseWhat is the onset of age-related hearing changes?gradualWhen are age-related changes to hearing generally realized?when it affects communicationWhat are the implications of age-related changes to hearing?- onset = gradual - human speech is more difficult - hearing loss and disability - communicating with person with hearing lossHow is human speech affected by age-related changes to hearing?- consonant have a higher frequency - hard to hear speech-in-noiseTrue or false. Hearing loss and disability seriously interferes with quality of life.trueWhat are ways to properly communicate with a person with hearing loss?- face the person - speak slowly and enunciate - don't shout - use touch, if possible - be patientWhy is important to not shout when speaking to someone who is hearing impaired?- can make OA feel bad - may think you are upset with themTrue or false. It is ok to raise your voice without shouting when speaking to someone with hearing loss.trueWhy do you need to be patient when communicating with a person with hearing loss?communication may take longerHow can you use touch to communicate with a person with hearing loss?to get their attentionWhy does hearing loss seriously interfere with quality of life?many socially isolate because of difficulty communicatingWhat are hearing aids?sound amplifiers tuned for human speechWho prescribes hearing aids?audiologistTrue or false. Hearing aid coverage and insurance is universal.falseTrue or false. Hearing aids are inexpensive.falseHow are hearing aids tuned for human speech?tuned for certain frequencies that human speech is withinExplain OTC hearing aids.- FDA approved - may not be fitted perfectly - come at reduced costWhat is a cochlear implant?device that helps with moderate to severe hearing lossHow does a cochlear implant work?send electronic stimulation directly to cochleaWhat comprises the vestibular system?3 semicircular canalsWhat does the vestibular system do?hair cells detect movement of fluid and gravityWhy is the vestibular system important?- mobility - balance - body's orientation in spaceWhat are age-related changes in vestibular system?- hair cells that contain sensory receptors are damages and become decrease with age - body sway increasesWhat are the implications of age-related changes to vestibular system?- tend to move slower - take wider stance - vertigoWhy does vertigo happen?hair cells are damaged or stuck so body orientation is sensed incorrectlyWhat are age-related changes in taste?- slower replacement of taste buds - less saliva --> dry mouth --> less taste - may add salt and sugar - decline partially related to olfactory issues - lose teeth: dentures - isolation: may not eat as much as needed, social component to eatingWhen do people generally notice loss of taste due to slower replacement of taste buds?~60Why may OAs add salt and sugar to food?increase flavorAdding salt and sugar to food may conflict with what conditions?hypertension and diabetesWhat does olfactory mean?smellWhat are age-related changes in smell?slower replacement of olfactory receptorsWhat does the slower replacement of olfactory receptors mean?less ability to smell and discriminate between cellsWhat can disrupt smell?history of smokingWhat are age-related changes in tactile?- threshold increases slightly - spatial acuity declines - pain preservedWhat does it mean if tactile threshold increases?less sensitive to pressure/touchWhy does tactile threshold increases?fewer receptors in skinWhat are the health implications of age-related changes to sensory system?- excess use of salt --> hypertension - excess use of sugar --> diabetes - malnutrition because of decreased ability to enjoy foodWhat are the safety implications of age-related changes to sensory system?- risk of eating spoiled food - risk of not detecting burning electrical wires or a gas leakWhat are the societal perception implications of age-related changes to sensory system?- personal hygiene: generally good, but sometimes may not notice they need to shower - cologne: may wear way too muchChanges in what play a major role in OAs ability to live independently?sensory systemNormal changes in sensory function don't affect functioning until when?70s-80sWho is Leah Chase?- 94 year old - chef and co-owner of Dooky Chase's restaurant - cooking there for 74 yearsWhat are 2 components of gastrointestinal system?- alimentary canal (digestive tract): mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine - accessory digestive organs and glands: teeth, tongue, gallbladder, liver, pancreas, salivary glands, etc.What are main functions of gastrointestinal system?transportation, digestion, absorptionWhat is peristalsis?contraction of smooth muscle that pushed food through digestive tractWhat are the types of digestion?mechanical and chemicalWhat is mechanical digestion?chewing, stomach churningWhat is chemical digestion?enzymes in stomach acidWhat are parts of mouth?teeth, salivary glands, tongueWhat do salivary glands do?- produce saliva - moisten/lubricate - salivary amylaseWhat is amylase?enzyme that begins breakdown of foodWhat do teeth do?mechanical digestionWhat does tongue do?manipulate foodWhat travels through pharynx?food and airWhat travels through esophagus?foodWhat are the parts of pharynx?nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynxWhat does the epiglottis do?blocks passage to tracheaWhat does swallowing induce in esophagus?peristalsisWhat enzymes do the gastric glands produce?pepsin (protein), lipase (fat), hydrochloric acids (bacteria, iron), mucin (stimulates mucus)What is pepsin?enzyme that breaks down proteinWhat is lipase?enzyme that breaks down lipidsWhat does hydrochloric acid do?kills bacteria and helps with iron absorptionWhat does mucin do?stimulate mucusWhat does the stomach do?churn, pulverize, mix --> chymeWhat is food referred to as in stomach?chymeFood enters stomach through what?gastroesophageal sphincterChyme exits stomach through what?pyloric sphincterIn the small intestine, what is chyme mixed with?secretions from gallbladder, liver, pancreasjWhat does the small intestine do?digest and absorb nutrientsHow are nutrients absorbed in small intestine?through villiAfter nutrients are absorbed through villi where does it go?blood vessels and lymphatic systemWhat does the liver do?- produce bile - store fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K) - store glycogen - detoxify drugs/alcohol/toxinsWhat does the pancreas do?- produces enzymes - secretes hormonesAre enzymes exocrine or endocrine?exocrineAre hormones exocrine or endocrine?endocrineWhat enzymes does the pancreas secrete in regard to the gastrointestinal system?amylase (starch), lipase (fat), protease (protein)What hormones does the pancreas secrete in regard to the gastrointestinal system?insulin and glucagonWhat does insulin do?decrease blood sugarWhat does glucagon do?increase blood sugarFood enters large intestine through what?ileocecal valveWhere does food go after large intestine?rectum --> anusWhat is a function of large intestine?water absorptionWhat are age-related changes in mouth?- enamel wears down --> cavities, pain - less saliva --> uncomfortable, cavities - chewing and swallowing slow down - ~27% 65+ have no remaining teeth~___% 65+ have no remaining teeth.27Why do many people 65+ have no remaining teeth?smoking, poverty statusWhat are age-related changes in esophagus?- weaker (normally minimal - increased risk of GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease)What happens during GERD?stomach acid backs up into esophagus and causes damageWhat are age-related changes in stomach?- slightly slower emptying - less mucus, less acid - smaller capacity (less intake)What can be an implication of less acid in stomach?less iron absorptionWhat are age-related changes in small intestine?- slight decrease in digestive enzymes - slightly slower peristalsis (weaker muscles)What are age-related changes in large intestine?slower peristalsis --> constipation (because of water absorption)What are age-related changes in liver?- smaller - less blood flow (decreased drug, toxin, alcohol metabolism)What are age-related changes in gallbladder?increased risk of gallstonesWhat are age-related changes in pancreas?fewer enzymes (doesn't seen to affect digestion much)Why are OAs at risk for undernourishment?- less absorption (decreased enzymes) - lower intake (issues chewing/swallowing, smaller stomach capacity, less smell/taste, earlier satiety) - cognitive imparimentsWhat are causes of cancer of esophagus?poor oral hygiene, alcohol abuse, smokingWhat are symptoms of cancer of esophagus?difficulty swallowingWhat are symptoms of GERD?heartburn, indigestion, chest painGERD may lead to what?dysphagiaWhat is dysphagia?difficulty swallowingWhat is treatment for GERD?- avoid certain food and drinks (spicy, acidic) - lifestyle modifications - medicationWhat is cirrhosis?inflammation and degeneration of liverWhat are risk factors for cirrhosis?male, alcohol abuseWhat are symptoms of cirrhosis?weight loss, weakness, jaundiceWhat is treatment for cirrhosis?low-fat diet, medications, rest, no alcoholWhat are causes of cirrhosis?alcohol abuse, hepatitis/infection, autoimmune, circulation (heart issues)What is hepatitis?inflammation/infection of the liverWhat is hiatal hernia?part of stomach is above diaphragmWhat could hiatal hernia be a result of?- weakened muscles - kyphosis or scoliosis - straining during exercise or bowel movementsWhat are risk factors for hiatal hernia?age, smoking, obesity, constipation, chronic stressWhy is constipation a risk factor for hiatal hernia?increase in abdominal pressureWhat are symptoms of hiatal hernia?heartburn, belching, difficulty swallowing, chest painWhat is treatment for hiatal hernia?surgeryWhat are hemorrhoids?twisted, enlarged veins that impair blood flowWhat are risk factors for hemorrhoids?- straining bowel movements (constipation) - prolonged sittingWhat are symptoms of hemorrhoids?itching, vein protrusion, bleeding, painWhat are treatments for hemorrhoids?high-fiber diet, stool softeners, topical/suppository medications, surgeryWhat are peptic ulcers?erosion of mucus membraneWhere do peptic ulcers occur?stomach, esophagus, small intestineWhat bacteria is usually involved in the formation of peptic ulcers?H. PyloriWhat are symptoms of peptic ulcers?pain, weight loss, nausea, vomitingPeptic ulcers may lead to what?perforationWhat is perforation of stomach?stomach is completely worn throughWhat is treatment of peptic ulcers?- antacids - antibiotics - avoid acidic foods/drinksWhat is diverticulosis?small abnormal pouches in intestineDiverticulosis is a risk factor for what?diverticulitisWhy does diverticulosis occur?weakening of muscle walls~___% of those 80+ have diverticulosis.50Diverticulosis --> infection --> inflammation --> _____________diverticulitisWhat are symptoms of diverticulitis?fever, abdominal painWhat is treatment for diverticulosis?high-fiber diet, surgery to removeWhat is constipation?hard or infrequent stool that is difficult to passWhy is constipation more prevalent in OAs?intestine slows with age --> more water absorption in large intestineWhat are risk factors for constipation?low fluid intake, some medications, lack of exercise, diseaseWhat is treatment for constipation?high fiber diet, exercise, drink fluids, laxativesWhat are risk factors for diarrhea?laxative abuse, medications, diverticulitis, illnessWhy is diarrhea dangerous for OAs?- fluid loss and electrolyte imbalances - harder to maintain homeostasisWhy are cancers of gastrointestinal system typically deadly?- usually discovered late - little/no symptoms at firstWhat risk factors for stomach cancer?diet, smoking, obesity, infectionsWhat symptoms for stomach cancer?weight loss, loss of appetite, nausea, vomitingWhat is the 3rd most common cause of cancer death?colorectcal cancerWhat does colorectal mean?colon, rectumWhat can colorectal cancer develop from?tumors (polyps) in colonWhat are risk factors for colorectal cancer?age, polyps, genetics, diet, sedentary, smoking, alcoholWhat are symptoms of colorectal cancer?change in bowel movements, rectal bleeding, weight lossWhen are colonoscopies recommended?50+ yearsWhy are colonoscopies important?can catch cancer early which is important because it often doesn't have symptomsWhat is the leading cause of cancer-related death in US?pancreatic cancerWhat are risk factors for pancreatic cancer?age, diabetes, smoking, alcohol use, genetics, high fat diet, obesityWhat are symptoms of pancreatic cancer?loss of appetite, weight loss, fatigue, chills/fever, pain, jaundiceWhat is treatment for pancreatic cancer?surgery, radiation, chemotherapyWhat is the most effective treatment for pancreatic cancer?surgeryWhat is the 5 year survival rate for pancreatic cancer?9%What is xerostomia?dry mouth2006 study found that only ___% of nursing home residents received any oral care.162006 study done on nursing home residents found that average tooth brushing time was _______.16 seconds2008 study found that 1 in 10 cases of deaths from pneumonia in nursing homes could be prevented by improving _________.oral hygieneWho is John Voelpel?- 81 years old - graduated from USF with Ph.D. in PhilosophyWhat system is exposed most to damage of environment?respiratoryTrue or false. In respiratory system, it is difficult to distinguish between age-related changes and from environmental factors.trueWhat does nasal cavity do?filters, warms, and moistens airWhat is the larynx?vocal cordsWhat does the larynx do?closes when swallowing to prevent foreign material from entering tracheaWhat is the pharynx?throatWhere are tonsil located?pharynxWhat do tonsils do?help protect against bacteria and infectionsWhat is pleura?thin double-layer membrane with fluid in-between that surrounds lungsWhat is diaphragm?muscle that aids in breathingWhat causes inhalation?contraction of diaphragm and intercostal musclesWhat cause exhalation?relaxation of diaphragm and intercostal musclesThe bubble shape of alveoli increase what?surface area for gas exchangeWhat are the functions of respiratory system?ventilation, respiration, sound production, protectionWhat is ventilation?- basic breathing - bring air in and push air out - oxygenation of blood and getting rid of carbon dioxideWhat are the types of respiration?internal and externalWhat is external respiration?exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen from bloodWhat is internal respiration?exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen from body tissuesWhat structure of respiratory system is involved in production of sound?larynxHow is the respiratory system involved in protection?cough, sneeze, etc. help to expel foreign material from lungsWhat are age-related changes in mucociliary escalator?- decrease in number of cilia - decreased production of mucus - resulting in decrease ability to ward of infectionWhat are age-related changes in respiratory muscles?- lose strength and endurance - results in less efficient breathing and increased energy spend breathingWhat are age-related changes in rib cage?- become stiff - limits chest expansion and breathing abilityWhat are age-related changes in voice?- presbylaryngis - larynx changes - men's voices --> higher pitched - women's voices --> lower pitchedWhat are age-related changes in lungs?- decrease in size and elasticity - decrease in vital capacity - alveoli become enlarged - fewer capillaries = less gas exchange - immune function: macrophages become less effectiveWhat is vital capacity?maximum amount of air that can be expelled with each breathWhat are implication of age-related changes to respiratory system?- less availability of oxygen and less removal of carbon dioxide = decrease in reserve capacity - more easily fatigued - may increase sleep disordersWhat is the primary cause of cancer-related deaths in North America?lung cancerTrue or false. The majority of people who have lung cancer die within 1 year of diagnosis.trueWhy do the majority of people who have lung cancer die within 1 year of diagnosis?- detectability: don't show symptoms early on - circulatory: closely connected to circulatory system allowing it to spread throughout body easilyWhat is primary lung cancer?cancer began in lungsWhat is metastatic lung cancer?cancer began somewhere else and spread to lungsWhat are causes of lung cancer?smoking (including secondhand), asbestos (mesothelioma), family history, air pollutionWhat can increase your risk for developing lung cancer by 20-30%?secondhand smokingWhat causes 80-95% of lung cancer cases?smokingWhat are types of lung cancer?non-small cell and small cellWhat is non-small cell lung cancer?- 80-85% of cases - grows and spreads more slowly - majority are smoking relatedWhat is small cell lung cancer?- 10-15% of cases - much faster growing and spreadingWhat are symptoms of lung cancer- early: no symptoms - coughing, difficulty breathing, blood with coughing - symptoms often not bothersome until cancer has metastasizedWhat is treatment for lung cancer?- removal of affected lung (surgically) - chemo and radiation - new therapies (immunotherapy)What is mesothelioma?type of lung cancerWhat causes mesothelioma?asbestosWhat is fire-resistant and ok unless air borne?asbestos?What are symptoms of mesothelioma?shortness of breath, chronic pain in chest, unintentional weight loss, fluid build upWhen do symptoms of mesothelioma occur?30-40 years after exposure~_______ people in US are diagnosed with mesothelioma each year.3000~_______ people die from mesothelioma each year.2500____________+ deaths in US between 1999-2017 from mesothelioma.47000Lung cancer deaths rates may be a result of what effect?cohortLung cancer accounts for ___% of annual deaths in US from smoking.29More than __________ US deaths every year are from cigarette smoking.480,000What can chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) lead to?disability, hospitalization, deathWhat is COPD?group of disease where there is: - reduced airflow - excessive mucus - chronic infections - loss of alveolar walls - decreased lung elasticity - narrowing of bronchi___% of people with COPD die within 10 years.50Chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and asthma are all examples of what?COPDWhat are risk factors for COPD?smoking, secondhand smoke, genetics, air pollution, lower SES, infections, occupationWhat is the 3rd leading cause of death in US?COPD___% of people with COPD are smokers.80What are symptoms of COPD?- early: intermittent cough - late: labored breathing, wheezing, increased mucus, unintentional weight lossWhat is treatment for COPD?- removed irritants - medications to dilate bronchial tubes - respiratory therapy - supplemental oxygen - regular exercise and proper diet - psychosocial needs (less able to do things they used to which can lead to depression, isolation, etc.)With COPD, what 2 disorders often coexist?chronic bronchitis and emphysemaWhat is chronic bronchitis?recurrent, persistent cough, inflammation, excessive mucusWhat is emphysema?- enlargement and destruction of alveoli in lungs - lungs lose their ability to expand and contract - remain filled with stale oxygenWhat are symptoms of emphysema?lethargy, weakness, difficulty getting in oxygenWhat is pneumonia?lung inflammation caused by bacteria, viruses, or chemicalsWhat is the deadliest infectious disease for OA?bacterial pneumoniaWhat are causes of bacterial pneumonia?breathing in bacteria, food/fluidWhat are risk factors of bacterial pneumonia?COPD, CVD, diabetes, alcohol use, hospital stay (nosocomial pneumonia)What is nosocomial pneumonia?getting bacterial pneumonia in hospital settingWhat are symptoms of bacterial pneumonia in OAs?confusion, ADL difficulty, changes in cognition, rapid breathing, mild fever, low heart rateWhat is treatment for bacterial pneumonia?antibiotics, respiration therapy, restWhat is prevention for bacterial pneumonia?vaccinationWhat is tuberculosis (TB)?infectious disease caused by inhaling TB microbesHow does TB microbe travel?dropletTB has a high incidence among what population?nursing home residentsWhat are risk factors for TB?smoking, alcohol abuse, compromised immune system, diabetes, malnutritionWhat are symptoms of TB?- green, yellow, or bloody mucus - fatigue, weight loss - persistent low-grade fever - dull chest painsWhat is treatment for TB?medication to control/get rid of infectionHow is TB diagnoses?skin test, chest x-ray, analysis of mucus or tissueTrue or false. TB has active and inactive stages.trueWhat happens in inactive TB?dormant with no symptomsWhat is the link between air pollution and dementia?- evidence that exposure to pollution PM2.5 increases AD risk - PM 2.5 particulates penetrate in deep lung tissue and can show up in blood stream - increases oxidative stress and inflammation response - can get into brain (crossing blood-brain barrier) - OAs who live in high pollution areas do worse on cognitive tests - more likely to have dementia if they lived within 100m of a major roadway (have a lot of pollution/exhaust exposure)Study done in Canada showed that risk of developing dementia for people living within 50m of high-traffic roads is ___% higher than people living more than 300m away from high-traffic roads.7What is blood composed of?RBCs, WBCs, platelets, plasmaWhat do RBCs do?carry oxygenHow doe RBCs carry oxygen?protein hemoglobinWhat are WBCs involved in?immune functionWhat do WBCs do?protect against foreign bodiesWhat do platelets do?enable blood clottingWhat is plasma?fluid component of blood that RBCs, WBCs, and platelets float inWhat are the functions of blood?respiratory, nutritive, excretory, regulatoryHow does blood have a respiratory function?exchanges oxygen are carbon dioxideHow does blood have a nutritive function?transports glucose, fats, amino acids from digestive system to cellsHow does blood have a excretory function?waste is transported from cells to kidneys where it is filtered outHow does blood have a regulatory function?helps maintain homeostasis (water, temperature, hormone)Do arteries or veins have higher pressure?arteriesWhat do arteries do?- carry blood away from the heart - facilitate and maintain integrity of blood flowWhat do veins do?carry blood to the heartDo arteries or veins have one-way valves?veinsWhen are one-way valves within the veins helpful?when going against gravityWhat do capilaries do?- connect arteries (arterioles) and veins (venules) - exchange oxygen, carbon dioxide, and other nutrientsWhat is a crucial component of both veins and arteries?elastinWhat does elastin do?helps deal with pressure of heartbeats less elastin --> less reoil between beats --> BP drops --> faster heartbeat --> too much pressure on arteriesWhat are important characteristics of arteries?more muscle and elastinWhat are important characteristics of arterioles?branch from arteries and lead to capillariesWhat are important characteristics of capillaries?thin, permeable membraneWhat are important characteristics of veins?one way valve to prevent blood from falling back downWhat are arteries made of?endothelium, basement membrane, smooth muscle, outer coatWhat are arterioles made of?endothelium, basement membrane, smooth muscle rings over elastic tissue, outer coatWhat are capillaries made of?endothelium, basement membraneWhat are veins made of?valve, endothelium, basement membrane, smooth muscle and elastic fibers, outer coatWhat are the types of blood circulation?systemic and pulmonaryWhat is systemic blood circulation?- oxygen-rich blood carried from left ventricle to aorta and to cells in body via arteries - oxygen-depleted blood carried back to heart via veinsWhat is pulmonary blood circulation?- blood from heart to lungs via pulmonary artery to absorb oxygen - oxygenated blood back from lungs via pulmonary veinsDoes the systemic or pulmonary circuit involve blood flow to the whole body?systemicDoes the systemic or pulmonary circuit involve blood flow between heart and lungs?pulmonaryHow are muscle cells like neurons?they don't regenerateTrue or false. Muscle cells don't regenerate.trueWhat are the normal age-related changes to heart?- loss of muscle cells (no regeneration) - increase in fatty tissue, collagen/elastin, lipofuscin - thickening, decreasing elasticity - neurodegeneration in pacemaker cells - decreased contractile strength - thickening and hardening of valve flaps (sclerosis)What is sclerosis?hardening of valve flaps of heartWhat are the normal age-related changes to arteries and veins?changes (increase) in BPWhy is there an increase in BP as we age?- decreasing elasticity of arterial walls (collagen buildup) - lower peripheral resistance (limbs) - vein dilation --> blood pooling - coronary artery calcification (less elastic)What are the normal age-related changes to the cardiovascular system?- slight arrhythmias - longer recovery - decline in cardiac output - blood componentsTrue or false. Slight arrhythmias are a normal age-related change.trueWhat does it mean that the heart has a longer recovery?longer rest/pause between beatsWhat is a result of a declined cardiac output?less oxygenation --> tire more easilyHow do component of blood change as we age?decreased plasma volume which may slightly affect hemoglobinWhat is ejection fraction?amount of blood pumped from heart with each contraction___% of blood is expelled from heart when exercising?90What improve the elasticity of heart?exerciseThe amount of blood that is expelled from heart when exercising decreases from 90% to ___% as we age.71Does the thickening of heart muscle increase or decrease with age?increaseWhat is an effect of the thickening of heart muscle?harder for muscle to contractWhat does arterio mean?hardeningWhat does athero mean?atheromas/clotsWhat is ateriosclerosis/atherosclerosis?hardening of arteriesWhat are the risk factors for ateriosclerosis/atherosclerosis?- non-modifiable: age, male, genetics - modifiable: poor diet, lack of exercise, smoking, obesity, diabetes, high BP, high cholesterolWhat are the symptoms of ateriosclerosis/atherosclerosis?- ischemia (heart/brain) - increased in BP; decrease organ/muscle efficiency - heart attack riskWhat is the treatment for ateriosclerosis/atherosclerosis?- lifestyle modifications: proper diet/exercise, smoking cessation, address diabetes/hypertension - cholesterol medication - anti-platelet medicationWhat happens during coronary artery disease?blood supply to heart muscles are reduced/blockedWhat can coronary artery disease lead to?heart attack and deathWhat is angina pectoris?chest painWhen does angina pectoris occur?when heart doesn't receive enough bloodWhat are the types of angina pectoris?stable and unstableWhat happens with stable angina pectoris?episodic, over a long period of timeWhat happens with unstable angina pectoris?pain at rest, increasing frequencyWhat is the treatment for angina pectoris?medications and surgeriesWhat BP is considered hypertension?130-80What is systolic pressure?- pressure of blood against artery walls when heart is contracting - top number of BPWhat is diasolic pressure?- pressure of blood when heart is a rest - bottom number of BPHow common is hypertension?~50% of OA haveWhat are risk factors for hypertension?- non-modifiable: sex (male), ethnicity (African American), genetics - modifiable: poor diet, high stress, smoking, diabetesWhat is considered normal blood pressure?120/80 or lowerWhat is considered high blood pressure (hypertension stage 1)?130/80-139/89Based on the new criteria, ___% of US adults have high BP?46What are the types of hypertension?primary (essential), secondary, pseudoWhat is primary (essential) hypertension?- no obvious, biological cause for increase in BP - 90% of casesPrimary (essential) hypertension is responsible for ___% of cases of hypertension.90What is secondary hypertension?caused by disorders in other systems like endocrine or neurological; some medicationWhat is pseudohypertension?BP reading are elevated, but real BP is normalWhy does pseudohypertension occur?artery thickening and build up of Ca+2 deposits in artery wallsWhen should healthcare professionals begin to suspect pseudohypertension?if patient has very high BP readings over a long period of time but has no signs of organ damage or other complicationsWhat is prevention for hypertension?- reduce weight (if needed) - 30+ minutes of daily exercise - reduce consumption of sodium and caffeine - dietary changes: limiting sweets, red meat, total and saturated fatsWhat is treatment for hypertension?- medication if lifestyle changes are ineffective - thiazine (diuretic) - Ca+2 channels, beta blockers, ACE inhibitorsWhat is a myocardial infarction?heart attackWhat is the cause of a myocardial infarction?- reduced/no blood flow to heart from coronary arteries - clot/atherosclerosisWhat does a myocardial infarction do?deprives heart muscle of oxygen, causing it to stop functioningWhat are symptoms of a myocardial infarction?- pain: chest and arm/shoulder - sweating - moist, clammy pale skin - nausea, gastric issues, dizziness, extreme fatigue, behavior/mental changes, arrhythmia___% of myocardial infarctions are not identified in women and OAs.25What is the treatment for a myocardial infarction?- rapid treatment is essential - within first 3 hours: fibrinolytic medication to break up clots - other medications - surgery: balloon angioplasty, coronary bypass surgeryWhat must happen within first 3 hours of a myocardial infarction?administration of fibrinolytic medicationWhat does fibrinolytic medication do?break up clotsWhat is the prevention/rehabilitation for myocardial infarction?- education - exercise - stress reduction - weight control (including dietary education) - smoking cessation - moderate alcohol use? - glass of wine is good for heartWhat happens during balloon angioplasty?catheter is inserted through skin into main artery of leg and directed to affected coronary artery using x-ray guidanceWhy might a balloon angioplasty not be a particularly effective treatment?- blood vessel isn't cleared out - addressed immediate issue but there is a high level of reoccuranceWhat happens during stent placement?stent covered in anti-clot substance is inserted same way as in balloon angioplasty and remains at affected areaWho is a stent placement best for?people who are not healthy enough for open heart surgeryWhat is another name for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG)?heart bypass surgeryWhen is coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) recommended?when 1+ coronary arteries are seriously blocked and blood supply to heart muscle is insufficienthow often does coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) bypass need to be redone?~10 yearsWhat is a heart bypass machine used for?re-route blood from heart while coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery is being doneAfter coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is done, how long will the patient stay in the hospital?7-10 daysAfter coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is done, how long will the patient stay in the ICU?1-3 daysWhen will full benefits of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) be seen?may not be seen until 3-6 months after surgeryWhat are cardiac arrhythmias?irregular heartheatWhat causes cardiac arrhythmias?dysfunction to sinoatrial (SA) node in heartWhat is the pacemaker of heart?SA nodeWhy are cardiac arrhythmias problematic?heart may not pump enough blood to rest of bodyWhy are cardiac arrhythmias more severe for OAs?less reserve capacityWhat are symptoms of cardiac arrhythmias?fatigue, shortness of breath, faintingWhat are types of cardiac arrhythmias?premature contractions, atrial fibrillations (A-fib), abnormal rhythmsWhat is atrial fibrillation (A-fib)?rapid, incomplete contractionsWhat are abnormal rhythms?too fast (tachycardia) or too slow (bradycardia)What is the treatment for cardiac arrhythmias?- medications - cardioversion - cardioverter - permanent pacemakerWhat is cardioversion?shocking heart --> normal heart rhythmWhat is cardioverter?defibrillator implantedWhat is permanent pacemaker?takes over job of SA and/or AV nodeWhat is a cerebrovascular accident?strokeWhat is a stroke?lack of blood getting to an area of brain because a blocked or burst vesselWhat are types of stroke?ischemic and hemorrhagicWhat causes an ischemic stroke?blockageWhat are the types of ischemic strokes?thrombotic and embolicWhat causes an embolic ischemic stroke?blood clot (air, fat tissue, etc)What causes an thrombotic ischemic stroke?fatty deposits block arteryWhat causes a hemorrhagic stroke?weak spot in blood vessel burstsWhat is the most deadly type of stroke in short term?hemorrhagic___% of people who have a hemorrhagic stroke die within 1st month.50What are causes of stroke?- very low or very high BP - atherosclerosisWhat are symptoms of stroke?- sudden numbness (especially on one side of body) - confusion - difficult speaking/understanding speech - difficulty seeing - dizziness, loss of balance/coordination - severe headacheWhat are risk factors for stroke?- modifiable risk factors: hypertension, heart disease, diabetes, high blood cholesterol, smoking, body weight, physical activity, heavy alcohol use, illicit drug use, metabolic syndrome - non-modifiable risk factors: age, gender (male have higher incidence, but more women die), genetics (particularly vascular abnormalities) - other: head and neck injury, previous TIA or stroke, pregnancyWhat is the treatment for ischemic stroke?- tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) - mechanical thrombectomyWhat is tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)?- "clot busting" medication - must be administered within 3 hours after strokeHw quickly must tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) be administered?within 3 hoursWhat is mechanical thrombectomy?stent retriever or suction tube grabs clot___% of stroke patients were able to accurately identify 1 stroke risk factor.60.5___% of stroke patients were able to identify 1 stroke symptom.55.3___% of stroke patients accessed the ER in 2 hours.31.6Patients' median delay time from onset of symptoms to admission was _____.16 hoursSomeone other than the patient made the decision to seek treatment in ___% of cases.66What is the acronym to determine whether a person is having a stroke?FASTWhat does the acronym FAST stand for?- face: ask person to smile, does one side of face droop? - arms: ask person to raise both arms, does one are drift downward? - speech: ask person to repeat a simple sentence, is the speech slurred or strange? - time: if person has difficulty with any of these task, time is essential, call 911 immediatelyWhat are lasting disabilities after stroke?- paralysis or movement problems - sensory problems: lose sensation on 1 side of body - language problems: have difficulty expressing self, trouble with speech - cognitive problems: thinking and memory - emotional problems: personality changesTrue or false. Types and degrees of disability that follow a stroke depend on which area of brain is damaged.trueWhat is transient ischemic attack (TIA)?small strokeTrue of false. Transient ischemic attacks (TIA) are often undiagnosed.trueWhy are transient ischemic attacks (TIA) often undiagnosed?resolve itselfWhat are causes of transient ischemic attack (TIA)?blood clot, vasospasm, low BP in brain because of narrowed arteriesWhat is a vasospasm?blood vessels suddenly contract and cuts off blood flowWhat are symptoms of transient ischemic attack (TIA)?- temporary weakness, vision loss, dizziness, confusion, speech issues - begins like a regular stroke, but resolved itself within minutes to hours - results in no noticeable symptoms or deficitsWhat is a major warning sign for impending, larger stroke?transient ischemic attack (TIA)Within 1 year of transient ischemic attack (TIA), up to ___% of patients will die.25What is an aneurysm?weakened spot in arteryAn aneurysm can be cause of what?hemorrhagic strokeWhat are risk factors for aneurysm?being male, 60+, hypertension, atherosclerosisWhat are symptoms of aneurysm?- generally no symptoms unless it ruptures - pain, low BP, rapid heart rate, lightheadedness, deathWhat is treatment for aneurysm?- remove aneurysm and replace with graft - clipping - endovascular coiling - flow diversionWhat is congestive heart failure (CHF)?heart is no longer able to adequately pump blood to bodyWhat is the leading cause of hospitalization in OAs 65+?congestive heart failure (CHF)What are symptoms of congestive heart failure (CHF)?fatigue, shortness of breath, coughing, edema, nausea, tachycardia, disorientation, weaknessWhat does congestive heart failure (CHF) on right side cause?build up of fluid in lungsWhat does congestive heart failure (CHF) on left side cause?build up of fluid in extremitiesWhat are risk factors for congestive heart failure (CHF)?cardiac issues, lung/pulmonary disease, kidney disease, liver disease, diabetes, anemia, electrolyte imbalance, obesity, alcohol abuse, long periods of extreme stressWhat is treatment for congestive heart failure (CHF)?reduce demand (and stress), increase output, reduce congestion (build up of fluid), medication and lifestyle changesWhat is heart valve disease?heart valves don't close properly due to weakening or hardeningWhat is deep vein thrombosis?blood clots in leg, sometimes due to vein inflammation (phlebitis), that can break off and travelWhat are varicose veins?- dysfunction valves in veins - blood doesn't flow correctly and pool in legsWhat are risk factors for varicose veins?being female, obesity, family historyWhat are symptoms for varicose veins?leg that is bluish/red, warm to touch, tender, swollen, painfulWhat is prevention/treatment for varicose veins?compression devices, anticoagulants, special stockings, appropriate leg exercisesWhat is radiofrequency occlusion?small catheter inserted into damaged vein delivers radiofrequency energy to vein wall, causing it to heat and as vein warm, it collapses and seals shut