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In Class Test 2 Review for Biology
Textbook: Biology 10th Edition by Campbell 2014 College: Camden County
Terms in this set (100)
Two Types of Nucleic Acids
DNA and RNA
Stores hereditary information. Location in the nucleus. Has four nitrogen base pairs.
Copies DNA code, carries amino acids, and synthesizes proteins. Made in the nucleus and moves to the cytoplasm.
Copies DNA code
Carries specific amino acid for protein synthesis
Site of protein synthesis in the cytoplasm
Subunit of Nucleic Acids
Composition of Nucleotides
Made of a five carbon sugar, nitrogen containing base, and a phosphate group
Nitrogen Containing Bases of DNA
The purines are A and G. The pyrimidines are C and T. The pairs are A and T, C and G.
Nitrogen Containing Bases of RNA
The purines are A and G. The pyrimidines are C and U. The pairs are A and U, C and G.
Complementary Base Pairing
If one strand of DNA or RNA is known, the other can be predicted.
Backbone of DNA Strand
Sugar phosphate with covalent bonds
Steps of a DNA Strand
Nitrogen containing bases with hydrogen bonds
Difference Between DNA and RNA
RNA has an OH group on Carbon 2 of the five Carbon sugar.
Central Dogma of Nucleic Acids
DNA = RNA = protein
General Equation of Cell Respiration
glucose + H2O + O2 = CO2 + H2O + ATP
Fed by others
The cleaving of carbon-hydrogen bonds
O2 must be present. The final electron receptor is O2.
Without O2 present. The final electron receptor is an inorganic molecule like sulfur or nitrates.
Four Steps of Aerobic Respiration
Glycolysis, pyruvate oxidation, Krebs cycle, and ETC
With or without O2 present. Occurs in the cytoplasm. Starts with one, six carbon glucose and ends with two, three carbon pyruvate. Makes two net ATP and two NADH.
With O2 present. Occurs in the inter-membranous space of the mitochondria. Starts with two, three carbon pyruvate, then two, two carbon acetyl groups, and ends with two, two carbon acetyl CoA. Two CO2 are exhaled and two NADH are produced.
With O2 present. Occurs in the matrix of the mitochondria. Starts with two, two carbon acetyl CoA + a four carbon oxaloacetate then ends with a citrate. Two ATP are formed, oxaloacetate is regenerated, four net CO2, two FADH2, and six NADH.
With O2 present. Occurs on the inner-membrane of the mitochondria. Its job is to make ATP and houses oxidative enzymes. Proton pumps pump hydrogen ions back to the inter-membranous space creating concentration gradient.
Pump hydrogen ions back to the inter-membranous space in the mitochondria creating a proton gradient. FADH2 activates two pumps and NADH activates all three. An example of a proton pump is cytochrome oxidase complex.
Net ATP Molecules Made Per One Glucose
About 36 to 38 ATP
Step in Aerobic Respiration that Makes Most ATP
Quickest Way to Make ATP
Chemiosmosis with the ATP Synthase in Mitochondria
First step is to create a concentration gradient across the inner-membrane of the mitochondria. Second step is when the ATP synthase forms a channel for hydrogen ions to flow to the matrix using diffusion. Lastly, chemical energy is converted from mechanical and drives the reaction: ADP + Pi = ATP.
When an organic molecule, yeast, accepts a hydrogen ion and is without oxygen. The final electron receptor is an organic molecule such as alcohol or ethanol.
Muscle Cells Under Anaerobic Conditions
Form lactic acid
A series of anabolic reactions that makes glucose in the chloroplast.
General Equation of Photosynthesis
CO2 + H2O + radiant energy = C6H12O6 + O2 + H2O
Organisms that Use Photosynthesis
Green plants, some algae, and certain bacteria
Flattened sacs holding chlorophyll pigments a and b in the chloroplast.
Arranged stacks of thylakoid membranes
The fluid matrix inside of the chloroplast where all the enzymes needed for the dark reactions reside.
Capture photons of radiant energy that excite electrons. The excited electrons then move through several membrane proteins and drive reactions in Light Dependent reactions.
Chlorophyll A Pigment
Main pigment that absorbs violet/blue and reflects green.
Chlorophyll B Pigment
Accessory pigment that absorbs red and reflects green.
Accessory pigment that absorbs blue and reflects orange/yellow.
Light Dependent Reaction
With light present. Makes ATP and NADPH. Occurs on the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast.
Calvin Cycle or Dark Reaction
Without light present. Makes glucose. Occurs in the stroma of the chloroplast. Must have CO2, ATP, and NADPH in order to do this reaction.
Carbon is taken from the atmosphere and placed into an organic molecule such as glucose.
Steps in the Light Reaction
The primary photo event, charge separation, electron transport, and chemiosmosis.
Produces ATP in the stroma of the chloroplast. Holds the antennae, a cluster of chlorophyll a pigments, and the reaction center. H2O donates an electron to return the reaction center to neutral.
Produced NADH in the stroma.
Primary Photo Event
Light at a certain wavelength is absorbed by antennae. After this water donates an electron to the reaction center to make it neutral.
Charge Separation Event
All chlorophyll a pigments excited at once in a single event.
Excited electrons are carried by carrier molecules embedded in the thylakoid membrane. A proton gradient is created.
Chemiosmosis with ATP synthase in Chloroplast
The ATP synthase enzyme helps to create ATP in the chloroplast.
Steps of Calvin Cycle or Dark Reaction
First, Carbon is fixed from the air. Next carbon is added to RuBP to create PGA. Then the PGA makes G3P. Some of the G3P is used to make one glucose molecule. The rest of the G3P is used to regenerate RuBP.
One of the most important enzymes in the universe because without it we couldn't fix carbon or get glucose. It drives the reaction of CO2 + RuBP and O2 + RuBP. Although, it is not a very stringent enzyme because it lets O2 and CO2 compete for the active site.
The "wasteful process". When O2 binds to the active site of rubisco. No glucose is produced, no carbon is fixed, and it requires a lot more ATP to drive the reaction. This is commonly found in C4 plants
Grow where light is abundant, water is not available, and the stomata are closed. They thrive in hot climates like deserts. Examples are corn, sugarcane, sorghum, thistles, and some grass.
Grow where there is low light, water is abundant, and stomata are open. They thrive in wet cool climates and cloudy environments. Examples are most trees, grains, wheat, oats, rice, and Kentucky glue grass.
Bundle Sheath Cells
Specialized cell that C4 plants use to circumvent photorespiration. They are located in the plant stems.
How Photosynthesis and Cell Respiration Are Similar
They both do chemiosmosis with the ATP synthase.
The ability to do work
The energy of motion
The energy of position
Extra energy needed to destabilize existing chemical bonds and then initiate a chemical reaction.
Usually a biological protein as an enzyme. It will lower the activation energy and increase the speed of a reaction.
Also known as metabolism. It is a series of sequential chemical reactions that are occurring in the cell.
Will proceed spontaneously and then release energy.
Requires input of energy to proceed.
Laws of Thermodynamics
Describes the amount and usefulness of energy
First Law of Thermodynamics
Energy cannot be created or destroyed by ordinary means and can be transformed from one form to another.
Second Law of Thermodynamics
Entropy is always increasing.
Competes with the substrate for the active site on an enzyme because both the substrate and the inhibitor have similar shapes.
Binds in a reversible manner to a site on the enzyme separate from the active site called allosteric site. There it temporarily modifies the shape of the active site so that the substrate cannot bind to the enzyme.
Non protein organic molecule that assists the enzyme in catalysis. It also serves as an electron acceptor or shuttle of hydrogen atoms. An example is NAD+ that accepts two electrons and a hydrogen atom to form NADH.
A non protein inorganic molecule that assists the enzyme in functioning. An example is a metal ion such as zinc.
The energy currency of the cell. When the outer most phosphate groups are cleaved off by hydrolysis, it releases lots of energy quickly.
Purpose of Fats and Carbohydrates
Long-term energy storage
Have a unique 3-D shape and react with specific substrate. It is not changed or consumed in a chemical reaction and can be reused. When a certain substrate binds to it, it forms an induced fit.
Pocket or cleft on an enzyme that only certain reactants called substrates can bind to.
Alters the substrate to form end-products but the enzyme remains unaltered and is released to catalyze another reaction.
Factors that Influence Enzyme Activity
Concentration of substrate, concentration of enzyme, optimum temperature, optimum pH, concentration of salt, and regulatory binding molecules.
Structures inside the cell that contain genes
The constriction point on a chromosome. Each chromosome has its own with a unique location that helps scientists count the chromosomes.
One pair of chromosomes carrying equivalent genes. They are found in a diploid cell.
One of the two copies of a replicated chromosome. It joins to its sister at the centromere.
Disc protein that attaches to chromosome at the centromere site. It links the chromosomes to the spindle apparatus.
Also known as nuclear division. After replication of chromosomes, each set moves to opposite poles of the cell to form two genetically identical daughter cells.
Also known as the division of the cytoplasm that occurs after nuclear division. Plant cells form a cell plate and animal cells for a cleavage furrow.
Cell of a Eukaryote
The diploid number of chromosomes is 46. The heploid number of chromosomes is 23.
Stages of the Life Cycle
Interphase, Mitosis, and Cytokinesis
Three Stages of Interphase
G1, S, and G2
The cell spends most of the time dormant or resting
The phase where the chromosomes are replicated or synthesized.
The cell spends this time growing extra organelles.
Four Stages of Mitosis
Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, and Telephase
When chromosomes first become visible. The nuclear membrane and nucleolus disappears. Microtubules begin to form and the centrioles or asters move apart.
All chromosomes align in center of the cell. The microtubules attach to the kinetochore on each side of the centromere. The mitotic spindle is formed.
All the centromeres divide simultaneously and the chromatids are pulled to opposite poles. The polar microtubules move the poles apart and stretch the cell. This is when the partitioning of the genome occurs.
The chromatids reach the poles of the cell. The kinetochore and mitotic spindle disappear. The nuclear membrane reforms and the nucleolus reappears. The chromosomes decondense.
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