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99 terms

104 CHR Diseases

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Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)
Condition in which plaque builds up inside the Coronary Arteries. Also known as Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD) or Coronary Heart Disease (CHD).
Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)
Often asymptomatic, if symptoms occur, may include Chest Pain, And shortness of breath.
Arteriosclerosis/Atherosclerosis
Hardening of the arteries that can result in decreased blood flow.
Arteriosclerosis/Atherosclerosis
Often Asymptomatic but may cause heart attacks, strokes, peripheral vascular disease, or other serious disease states over time.
Angina Pectoris
Is the blockage of coronary arteries. Is caused by arteriosclerosis or coronary artery spasms. Can be brought by physical stress, cold temps.
Angina Pectoris
Symptoms may include crushing chest pain, tingling or burning sensation in the left shoulder, pain in the left side of the jaw, shortness of breath, anxiety
Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS)
Can be diagnosed by having, Unstable Angina (UA), Myocardial Infarction (MI)
Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS)
Most common cause is the rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque that causes a clot in the artery.
Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS)
Symptoms may include Chest discomfort, SOB, nausea and vomiting, discomfort in the upper body, sweating, and dizziness/light-headedness
Cardiomyopathy
Structural or functional abnormality of the heart muscle which results in a loss of muscle efficiency and decrease in heart function.
Cardiomyopathy
Caused by congenital defects, acute or chronic infections, coronary artery disease, drugs and toxins, or genetics.
Cardiomyopathy
Symptoms are SOB, Fatigue, Edema, Chest Pain, Heart Arrhythmia
Congestive Heart Failure (CHF)
Heart failure in which the body can't pump enough blood to the rest of the body.
Congestive heart failure (CHF)
coronary artery disease, hypertension, diabetes
Congestive heart failure (CHF)
Symptoms are SOB during daily activities, Trouble breathing while lying down, weight gain, tiredness, weakness
Heart Murmur
Any abnormal Heart Sound
Heart Murmur
Causes are weak valves, heart attack, HBP, rheumatic fever, pregnancy, overactive thyroid, anemia
Heart Murmur
symptoms are usually asymptomatic but can be detected during physical exams.
Rheumatic Fever
Is a streptococcal infection that can cause valvular disorders when left untreated.
Rheumatic Fever
The exact cause is unknown
Rheumatic Fever
Symptoms are fever, pain in the joints, nausea, stomach cramps, vomiting
Endocarditis
Is the inflammation of the heart lining and valves.
Endocarditis
Caused by valve malformation and repeated exposure to bacteria or dental procedures in patients with a weak immune system
Endocarditis
Is usually asymptomatic except for heart murmurs or low grade fevers
Cardiac Arrest
The cessation of heart beat and respiration.
Cardiac Arrest
Causes include, heart attack, trauma, and heart arrhythmias
Cardiac Arrest
Symptoms include sudden loss of responsiveness and absence of normal breathing
Arrhythmias
Any abnormal heartbeat
Arrhythmias
Caused when hearts natural pace maker develops an abnormal pattern.
arrhythmias
Symptoms include mild palpitations or cardiac arrest
Stroke
Loss or alteration of bodily function that results from lack of blood supply to the brain.
Stroke
Cause by obstruction of blood flow to the brain.
Stroke
Partial or full paralysis, slurred or loss of speech, visual disturbances, loss of consciousness, death
Peripheral vascular disease (PVD)
Disease of blood vessels outside the heart that affects peripheral circulation.
Peripheral vascular disease (PVD)
Can be caused by Atherosclerosis or Vasculitis, or injuries to blood vessels.
Peripheral vascular disease (PVD)
Symptoms include cramping and swelling especially to the legs
Hypertension
BP that is consistantly greater than or equal to 140 over 90
Hypertension
Most cases have no identifiable causes (AKA, primary hypertension) some cases are caused by underlying medical condition (AKA secondary hypertension)
Hypertension
Is often asymptomatic, if they do occur may include headache dizziness and nosebleeds
hypotension
occurs when BP is much lower then usual.
Hypotension
can be caused by medications, heart problems, dehydration, nutritional deficiencies, blood loss, postural changes, and thyroid abnormalities
Hypotension
Symptoms include fatigue, weakness, dizziness, syncope, and decreased kidney function
Hyperlipidemia
group of metabolic abnormalities resulting in combinations of elevated cholesterol.
Hyperlipidemia
Caused by either an increased synthesis or decreased breakdown of cholesterol.
Hyperlipidemia
Symptoms is often asymptomatic
Hypovolemic Shock
Serious condition when not enough blood flows throughout the body.
Hypovolemic shock
Caused by uncontrolled internal or external bleeding, severe burns, or during serious bouts of vomiting and diarrhea.
Hypovolemic shock
symptoms include very low BP, weak heart rate, and loss of consciousness.
Thromboembolic Disease/ Deep vein thrombosis/ pulmonary embolism
conditions that result when blood clots occlude the vein causing a back up of fluid and leading to swelling or inflammation in the extremity.
Thromboembolic Disease/ Deep vein thrombosis/ pulmonary embolism
Causes are certain surgeries, prolonged bed rest, immobility, cancer. smoking, obesity, varicose veins, inherited thrombophilias, medications,
Thromboembolic Disease/ Deep vein thrombosis/ pulmonary embolism
Symptoms include warmth and tenderness over the vein, pain and swelling, skin redness, SOB, fever, coughing up blood
Iron deficiency Anemia
Greater demand in the body for stored iron then supplied.
Iron deficiency anemia
Caused by inadequate intake of iron
Iron deficiency anemia
may be asymptomatic or may show symptoms such as palpitations and tachypnea on exertion.
Folate Deficiency Anemia
Ineffective hematopoiesis, causing cells to die within bone marrow.
Folate Deficiency Anemia
causes are improper diet, impaired absorption, increased need, excessive loss
Folate Deficiency Anemia
symptoms may include pallor, jaundice, fatigue, smooth beefy red tongue, and or weight loss
Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia
Also known as pernicious anemia, is characterized by an interruption in the formation of RBC precursor cells.
Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia
Causes, lack of liver other meats, milk and eggs in the diet, increased need, competition with tapeworms for adequate supplies.
Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia
Symptoms, Pallor, jaundice, smooth beefy red tongue, fatigue, weight loss and or Neurologic symptoms such as difficulty with gait, paresthesia, and ataxia
Sickle cell Anemia
turns your red blood cells to sickles and causes clots
Sickle cell Anemia
Causes, it is inherited
Sickle cell Anemia
Symptoms are chronic pain or fatigue, chronic anemia, fever, pallor. scleral icterus, enlargment of the liver and heart, and hematuria.
Polycythemia
Increased number of RBC, WBS, Platelets
Polycythemia
Causes are not well defined.
Polycythemia
Symptoms include headaches, vertigo, and abnormally enlarged spleen and or liver.
Hemophilia
Genetic deficiency in specific clotting factors
Hemophilia
caused by deficiency in blood clotting factors
Hemophilia
symptoms are slow or no clotting of the blood
Leukemias
Group of disorders affecting the hematopoietic system or the lymphoid system. characterized by the increase in number and size of WBC which causes the destruction of RBC.
Leukemias
Causes may include radiation, chemicals and drugs, heredity, and or congenital factors
Leukemias
Symptoms include fatigue, easy bruising
Kidney Stones
Made from urinary salts and cholesterol
Kidney Stones
The exact cause is unknown, certain people are more susceptible. May be inherited form of hypercalciuria or excessive urinary calcium excretion.
Kidney Stones
Symptoms include urinary retention and severe retroperitoneal pain due to a stone blocking the ureter.
Toxemia
Accumulation of toxic substances especially nitrogenous waste products, due to kidney failure.
Toxemia
Caused by kidney failure
Toxemia
Symptoms include elevated blood pressure, protein in the urine, and hyper reflexia.
Glomerulonephritis
The inflammation of the glomerulus portion of the nephron.
Glomerulonephritis
Acute cases caused often by bacterial infection, chronic cases may be caused by inherited disorder, and some cases unknown.
Glomerulonephritis
Symptoms include tissue edema, low urine volume and dark urine.
Pylonephritis
Infection of the kidney.
pylonephritis
Caused by bladder infections, catheter use, urinary tract surgery, prostate enlargement, kidney stones, and obstruction in the urinary tract.
pylonephritis
Symptoms include pain in the back, side, and or groin, urgent frequent urination, fever, nausea, vomiting, and pus or blood in the urine.
Diabetes insipidus
Increase of urine output due to lack of anti diuretic hormone,
Diabetes insipidus
Central Diabetes insipidus is caused by pituitary failure, and nephrogenic diabetes insipidus can be caused by a failure of the kidney to respond to ADH.
Diabetes insipidus
Symptoms include excessive thirst and increased urine output
Cystitis
Inflammation of the urinary bladder.
Cystitis
Most commonly caused by an infection of the bladder but may also be caused by certain medications chemicals or radiation.
Cystitis
Symptoms include painful frequent urination, blood in the urine or cloudy urine, and fever.
Urinary tract infection
Either an infection of a part of the urinary system or the presence of microorganisms in the urine.
(UTI)
Caused by bacteria that attach to the opening of the urethra and then spread up into the urinary tract.
(UTI)
Symptoms include burning or pain during urination and frequent urination.
Acute renal failure
Is the abrupt stoppage of filtration due to trauma or hemorrhage that causes low blood volume and acute kidney damage.
Acute Renal Failure
Symptoms include swelling of the legs and feet, little or no urine output, thirst, rapid heart rate, dizziness, nausea and vomiting, confusion, and pain on one side of the back.
Acute Renal Failure
Caused by any type of trauma or condition that impairs blood flow to the kidneys, certain toxic substances, bacterial toxins, glomerulonephritis, and acute obstruction of the urinary tract.
Chronic Renal Failure
Refers to the progressive irreversible decline in filtration.
Chronic Renal Failure
Two most common causes are diabetes and high blood pressure
Chronic Renal Failure
Symptoms include fatigue, nausea and vomiting, weight loss, blood in vomit or stools, confusion, changes in urine output, and uremic frost.