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38 terms

DANB ICE Exam A-C

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administrative controls
policies or work practices used to prevent or control exposure to pathogenic organisms
aerosols
tiny droplets such as acids in the atomosphere that can be inhaled
AIDS
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, which results in a variety of infections and a breakdown of an individual's immune system over time
Airborne transmission
Transmission of harmful organisms suspended in the air. Droplets can attach themselves to something in the air (dust, etc).
Alcohol -based hand rub
waterless antiseptic preparation rubbed into hands without water
allergen
substance producing a hypersensitivity (allergic) reaction
allergic contact dermatitis
Type IV hypersensitivity reaction that follows exposure to allergen. Lesions occur at site of contact.
anaphylaxis
a severe response to an allergen in which the symptoms develop quickly, and without help, the patient can die within a few minutes.
antibody
specialized protein that helps destroy disease-causing organisms
antimicrobial agent
Agent that kills or inhibits the growth of microorganisms.
antiseptic
an agent that inhibits the growth or kills infectious microorganisms
antiseptic handwash
Washing hands with water & soap or other detergent containing an antiseptic agent
antiseptic hand rub
1. Apply ample amount to palm
2. Rub, covering all surfaces
3. Continue rubbing until dry
appliance
a broad term commonly used to denote any dental prosthesis
asepsis
absence of significant contamination/microorganisms
aseptic technique
steps necessary to ensure an environment free from pathogens
bacterial count
method of estimating the number of bacteria per unit in a sample (CFU/ml)
bacterial endocarditis
an inflammation of the lining or valves of the heart caused by the presence of bacteria in the bloodstream
barrier
an item that blocks the penetration of microorganisms from contaminating the object under it
bioburden
any visible organic debris; in dentistry, most often blood or saliva
biological indicator
method for testing the sterilization capability of a sterilizer; contains microorganisms that are killed when exposed to a sterilization process. Only method of guaranteed sterility of an item.
biofilm
A complex community of microorganisms (bacteria)
that form a smear layer
biohazard
hazard to humans or the environment resulting from biological agents or conditions
biopsy
excision of a small piece of tissue for microscopic examination
bloodborne disease
Disease spread by direct contact with blood or other possible infectious material (AIDS, hepatitis, syphilis).
bloodborne pathogen
Microorganism capable of causing diseases found in blood or components of blood.
carrier
a person who has some pathogen to which he is immune but who can pass it on to others
Chain of infection
Infectious agent, reservoir, portal of exit, means of transmission, portal of entry and susceptible host.
chemical indicator
a color change stripe or other mark, often on autoclave tape or bag, used to monitor the process of sterilization; color change indicates that the package has been brought to a specific temperature, but it is not an indicator of sterilization
cleaning
The process of removing dirt, dust, blood, or other visible contaminants from a surface
clinical contact surface
surface touched by contaminated hands, instruments or spatter during dental treatments
colonize
to establish a colony, or group or organisms in or on a solid surface
confidentiality
safequarding of information, protection of private or sensitive information
conscious sedation
anesthesia; also known as moderate sedation; a decreased level of consciousness in which the patient is not completely asleep
contact time
amount of time the disinfectant has to be in contact with the contaminant in order to eliminate all pertinent microorganisms.
contaminated
soiled, unclean; having disease-causing organisms or infectious material on it
critical
catagory of instruments that cut or penetrate bone or tissue. substantial risk of acquiring infection if contacted with
cross-contamination
The spreading of microorganisms between two persons and /or surfaces