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37 terms

Nutrition- ch. 6

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amino acids
the building blocks of proteins. each contains a central carbon atom bound to a hydrogen atom, an amino group, an acid group, and a side chain
essential/ indispensable amino acids
amino acids that cannot be synthesized by the human body in sufficient amounts to meet needs and therefor must be included in the diet
nonessential/dispensable amino acids
amino acids that can be synthesized by the human body in sufficient amounts to meet needs
transamination
the process by which an amino group from one amino acid is transferred to a carbon compound to form a new amino acid
conditionally essential amino acids
amino acids that are essential int he diet only under certain conditions or at certain times of life
dipeptide
two amino acids linked by a peptide bond
tripeptide
three amino acids linked by peptide bonds
polypeptide
a chain of three or more amino acids linked by peptide bonds.
denaturation
the alteration of a protein's three-dimensional structure
anaphalaxis
an immediate and severe allergic reaction to a substance. symptoms include breathing difficulty, loss of consciousness, and a drop in blood pressure and can be fatal
amino acid pool
all of the amino acids in body tissues and fluids that are available for use by the body
protein turnover
the continuous synthesis and breakdown of body proteins
gene
a length of DNA containing the information needed to synthesize RNA or a polypeptide chain
transcription
the process of copying the information in DNA to a molecule of mRNA
translation
the process of translating the mRNA code into the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide chain
gene expression
the events of protein synthesis in which the information coded in a gene is used to synthesize a product; either a protein or a molecule of RNA
limiting amino acid
the essential amino acid that is available in the lowest concentration in relation to the body's needs
deamination
the removal of the amino group of an amino acid
urea
a nitrogen-containing waste product formed from the breakdown of amino acids that is excreted in the urine
antibodies
proteins produced by the body's immune system that recognize foreign substances in the body and help destroy them
pH
a measure of acidity
protein-energy malnutrition (PEM)
a condition characterized by wasting and an increased susceptibility to infection that results from the long-term consumption of insufficient amounts of energy and protein to meet needs
kwashiorkor
a form of protein-energy malnutrition in which only protein is deficient
marasmus
a form of protein-energy malnutrition in which a deficiency of energy in the diet causes severe body wasting
phenylkentonuria (PKU)
an inherited disease in which the body cannot metabolize the amino acid phenylalanine. if the disease is untreated, toxic by-products called phenylkentones accumulate in the blood and interfere with brain development
celiac disease
a disorder that causes damage to the intestines when the protein gluten is eaten
nitrogen balance
the amount of nitrogen consumed in the diet compared with the amount excreted by the body over a given period
protein quality
a measure of how efficiently a protein in the diet can be used to make body proteins
complete dietary protein
protein that provides essential amino acids in the proportions needed to support protein synthesis
incomplete dietary protein
protein that is deficient in on or more essential amino acids relative to body needs
chemical/ amino acid score
a measure of protein quality determined by comparing the essential amino acid content of the protein in a food with that in a reference protein.
protein digestibility- corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS)
a measure of protein quality that reflects a protein's digestibility as well as the proportions of amino acids it provides
protein efficiency ratio
a measure of protein quality determined by comparing the weight gain of a laboratory animal fed a test protein with the weight gain of an animal fed a reference protein
net protein utilization
a measure of protein quality determined by comparing the amount of nitrogen retained in the body with the amount eaten in the diet
biological value
a measure of protein quality determined by comparing the amount of nitrogen retained in the body with the amount absorbed from the diet
vegan
a pattern of food intake that eliminates all animal products
vegetarianism
a pattern of food intake that eliminates some or all of animal products