Period 8: 1945 - 1963
Terms in this set (90)
A conflict that was between the US and the Soviet Union. The nations never directly confronted each other on the battlefield but deadly threats went on for years.
Cold War Liberalism
Used to describe Truman's presidency where foreign and domestic policies were after entangled. Fierce anti-communism for foreign and welfare for domestic.
An international organization formed after WWII to promote international peace, security, and cooperation.
A U.S. foreign policy adopted by President Harry Truman in the late 1940s, in which the United States tried to stop the spread of communism by creating alliances and helping weak countries to resist Soviet advances
1947, President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology, mainly helped Greece and Turkey
A United States program of economic aid for the reconstruction of Europe (1948-1952)
He was an American diplomat and ambassador best known as "the father of containment" and as a key figure in the emergence of the Cold War.
He was Secretary of State under Harry Truman. It is said that he was more responsible for the Marshall Plan and the Truman Doctrine than those that the two were named for.
United States general and statesman who as Secretary of State organized the European Recovery Program (1880-1959)
A term popularized by British Prime Minister Winston Churchill to describe the Soviet Union's policy of isolation during the Cold War. The barrier isolated Eastern Europe from the rest of the world.
editor and columnist in 1920 that urged newspapers to make current records, make a running analysis, and suggest plans
In June 1948 when Soviet troops stopped all road and railroad traffic to West Berlin in hope to force Americans to renegotiate Germany's status and give up Berlin
North Atlantic Treaty Organization; an alliance made to defend one another if they were attacked by any other country; US, England, France, Canada, Western European countries
An alliance between the Soviet Union and other Eastern European nations. This was in response to the NATO
Atomic Energy Pact
Thermonuclear weapons created during the arms race. America developed the first H-bomb in 1957. 67 times as powerful as the 1st atomic bomb.
is a political term that refers to a country that is formally independent, but under heavy political and economic influence or control by the Soviets due to military occupation
(1893-1976) Leader of the Communist Party in China that overthrew Jiang Jieshi and the Nationalists. Established China as the People's Republic of China and ruled from 1949 until 1976.
Chiang Kai Shek
General and leader of Nationalist China after 1925. Although he succeeded Sun Yat-sen as head of the Guomindang, he became a military dictator whose major goal was to crush the communist movement led by Mao Zedong. (p. 788)
Korean leader who became president of South Korea after World War II and led Korea during Korean War.
Kim II Sung
Communist leader of North Korea; his attack on South Korea in 1950 started the Korean War. He remained in power until 1994.
National Security Act of 1947
Passed in 1947 in response to perceived threats from the Soviet Union after WWII. It established the Department of Defense and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and National Security Council.
A Soviet leader during the Cuban Missile Crisis. Also famous for denouncing Stalin and allowed criticism of Stalin within Russia.
Term used by Khrushchev in 1963 to describe a situation in which the United States and Soviet Union would continue to compete economically and politically without launching a thermonuclear war.
House Un-American Committee
An investigative committee of the United States House of Representatives. It was created in 1938 to investigate alleged disloyalty and subversive activities on the part of private citizens, public employees, and those organizations suspected of having Communist ties.
1950s; Wisconsin senator claimed to have list of communists in American gov't, but no credible evidence; took advantage of fears of communism post WWII to become incredibly influential; "McCarthyism" was the fearful accusation of any dissenters of being communists
In 1954, McCarthy accused the army of harboring Communists and they fought back in the Army-McCarthy hearings
First artificial Earth satellite, it was launched by Moscow in 1957 and sparked U.S. fears of Soviet dominance in technology and outer space. It led to the creation of NASA and the space race.
The "new look" defense policy of the Eisenhower administration of the 1950's was to threaten "massive retaliation" with nuclear weapons in response to any act of aggression by a potential enemy.
A 1956 term used by Secretary of State John Dulles to describe a policy of risking war in order to protect national interests
The incident when an American U-2 spy plane was shot down over the Soviet Union. The U.S. denied the true purpose of the plane at first, but was forced to when the U.S.S.R. produced the living pilot and the largely intact plane to validate their claim of being spied on aerially. The incident worsened East-West relations during the Cold War and was a great embarrassment for the United States.
A human-made waterway, which was opened in 1869, connecting the Red Sea and the Mediterranean Sea
a prolonged war (1954-1975) between the communist armies of North Vietnam who were supported by the Chinese and the non-communist armies of South Vietnam who were supported by the United States
Southeast Treaty Organization: Includes USA, UK, France, Pakistan, Thailand, the Philippines, Australia, and New Zealand
Military Industrial Complex
Eisenhower first coined this phrase when he warned American against it in his last State of the Union Address. He feared that the combined lobbying efforts of the armed services and industries that contracted with the military would lead to excessive Congressional spending.
An economic extension of the New Deal proposed by Harry Truman that called for higher minimum wage, housing and full employment. It led only to the Housing Act of 1949 and the Social Security Act of 1950 due to opposition in congress.
Amendment that created a 2 term limit on presidents.
Dwight D. Eisenhower
leader of the Allied forces in Europe then was elected to be Pres. of the USA
Federal Highway Act
Appropriating $25 billion for the construction of interstate highways over a 20-year period, it was the largest public works project in American history to that point.
National Defense Education Act; Eisenhower argued that the US must meet the Soviet threat in military power and technological advancement so nationwide testing of high schools to persuade students with high scientific ability
GI Bill of Rights
Also known as Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944 gave money to veternas to study in colleges, universities, gave medical treatment, loans to buy a house or farm or start a new business
John Kenneth Galbraith
Published The Affluent Society, in which he claimed that the nations postwar prosperity was a new phenomenon.
A cohort of individuals born in the United States between 1946 and 1964, which was just after World War II in a time of relative peace and prosperity. These conditions allowed for better education and job opportunities, encouraging high rates of both marriage and fertility.
Although television had been around since the 1920's it wasn't until the late 1950's that the television had really began to replace previous news sources. In 1946 there were only 17,000 television sets in America, but by 1957 there were 40 million. Television made mass media availably for people all over the United States, Europe, and other parts of the world
Keeping up with the jones
Policy that each American family had to outdo its neighbors
Name of the book by Betty Friedan that discussed the frustration of many women in the 1950's and 1960's who felt they were restricted to their roles of mother and homemaker.
1921-2006. American feminist, activist and writer. Best known for starting the "Second Wave" of feminism through the writing of her book "The Feminine Mystique".
The donna reed show
A show that demonstrated the lives of members in the American middle class; conformity
The first African American player in the major league of baseball. His actions helped to bring about other opportunities for African Americans.
American civil rights lawyer, first black justice on the Supreme Court of the United States. Marshall was a tireless advocate for the rights of minorities and the poor.
a black teenager who lived in Chicago, he was killed Mississippi for whistling at a white girl, his death is said to be the jump-start for the beginning of the American Civil Rights Movement
Brown vs. Board of Education
Decision saying, segregation in SCHOOLS is a violation of the 14th amendment, 1954
(LBJ) , United States civil rights leader who refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white man in Montgomery (Alabama) and so triggered the national civil rights movement (born in 1913)
Martin Luther King Jr.
U.S. Baptist minister and civil rights leader. A noted orator, he opposed discrimination against blacks by organizing nonviolent resistance and peaceful mass demonstrations. He was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee. Nobel Peace Prize (1964)
Southern Christian Leadership Conference, churches link together to inform blacks about changes in the Civil Rights Movement, led by MLK Jr., was a success
Montgomery Bus Boycott
In 1955, after Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give up her seat on a city bus, Dr. Martin L. King led a boycott of city busses. After 11 months the Supreme Court ruled that segregation of public transportation was illegal.
1956, Opposition of Southern congressmen to Brown v. Board of Education decision
The Greensboro Sit-ins were protests where 4 students from the NC Agricultural and Technical College sat down at whites only lunch counter. Once they were there, they refused to move. Each day, they came back with many more protesters. Sometimes, there were over 100. These sit-ins led to the formation of the SNCC. Led to sit-ins across the country.
Little Rock 9
1st group of black students who were able to attend an all white school because President Eisenhower used the military to enforce the Brown v. Board of Education decision
(1941)Term used in reference to juvenile delinquency.the term soon began to be associated with the tastes ,styles ,attitudes and cultural identity of the growing ranks of ww2 baby boomers.
Rock n Roll
influence of African-American blues, music of the younger generation (gap between them and their parents)
United States rock singer whose many hit records and flamboyant style greatly influenced American popular music (1935-1977)
1950s; celebrated spontaneity (ex: Kerouac and the Merry Pranksters) jazz, drugs, sexuality; challenged conformity and authority of America by rejecting traditions and emphasizing individualism; inspiration for counterculture of 1960s
Rebel Without a Cause
1955 film starring James Dean exploring the difficulties of family life and the alienation that many teenagers felt in the 1950s. Juvenile delinquency, and the reasons for it, was the subtext of this film, as well as the source of countless other 1950s-era movies aimed at the youth market.
A violation of law or the commission of a status offense by young people.
A downtown cleveland Ohio radio disk jockey, won permission to play African American rythym and blues records on air
the new frontier
Made by JFK with hopes to increase aid to education, provide health insurance to the elderly, created department of Urban Affairs and helped migrate workers
(JFK) , volunteers who help third world nations and prevent the spread of communism by getting rid of poverty, Africa, Asia, and Latin America
After JFK died, his wife, Jackie, compared their time in the White House to this musical.
Communist leader of Cuba
bay of pigs invasion
failed invasion of Cuba in 1961 when a force of 1,200 Cuban exiles, backed by the United States, landed at the Bay of Pigs.
lee harvey oswald
On November 22, 1963, he assassinated President Kennedy who was riding downtown Dallas, Texas.
cuban missile crisis
(JFK) , , an international crisis in October 1962, the closest approach to nuclear war at any time between the U.S. and the USSR. When the U.S. discovered Soviet nuclear missiles on Cuba, President John F. Kennedy demanded their removal and announced a naval blockade of the island; the Soviet leader Khrushchev acceded to the U.S. demands a week later, on condition that US doesn't invade Cuba
A fortified wall surrounding West Berlin, Germany, built in 1961 to prevent East German citizens from traveling to the West. Its demolition in 1989 symbolized the end of the Cold War. This wall was both a deterrent to individuals trying to escape and a symbol of repression to the free world.
war on poverty
President Lyndon B. Johnson's program in the 1960's to provide greater social services for the poor and elderly
A book written to voice the concerns of environmentalists. Launched the environmentalist movement by pointing out the effects of civilization development.
the other america
(1962)-This novel was an influential study of poverty in the U.S, published by Michael Harrington & it was a driving force behind the "war on poverty." 1/5 of U.S was living below poverty line.
the great society
Johnson's program to reduce poverty and racial injustice
Black students politely order food from restaurant, not served, sat in place for days, gathering supporters. successful.
student non violent coordinating committee
Involved in the American Civil Rights Movement formed by students whose purpose was coordinate a nonviolent attack on segregation and other forms of racism.
a series of political protests against segregation by Blacks and Whites who rode buses together through the American South in 1961
Alabama city against equal rights; peaceful marches in 1963 were broken up brutally by city police.
1963 march on washington
was a large political rally that took place in Washington, D.C. on August 28, 1963. Martin Luther King, Jr. delivered his historic "I Have a Dream" speech advocating racial harmony at the Lincoln Memorial during the march.
selma to montgomery march
1965 King leads 54-mile march to support black voter registration. Despite attacks from police and interference from Gov. Wallace, marchers reach Montgomery. Pres. Johnson addresses nation in support of marchers
civil rights act of 1964
1964; banned discrimination in public acomodations, prohibited discrimination in any federally assisted program, outlawed discrimination in most employment; enlarged federal powers to protect voting rights and to speed school desegregation; this and the voting rights act helped to give African-Americans equality on paper, and more federally-protected power so that social equality was a more realistic goal
African-American civil rights leader who encouraged violent responses to racial discrimination
Mississippi freedom summer
This was a highly publicized campaign to register blacks to vote in the Deep South during the summer of 1964. Civil rights activists, including white northern college students, fought to end the discrimination against blacks as it applied to the right to vote and the 15th amendment.
A black political organization that was against peaceful protest and for violence if needed. The organization marked a shift in policy of the black movement, favoring militant ideals rather than peaceful protest.
voting rights act of 1965
1965; invalidated the use of any test or device to deny the vote and authorized federal examiners to register voters in states that had disenfranchised blacks; as more blacks became politically active and elected black representatives, it rboguth jobs, contracts, and facilities and services for the black community, encouraging greater social equality and decreasing the wealth and education gap
equal rights amendment
constitutional amendment passed by Congress but never ratified that would have banned discrimination on the basis of gender