Kines 375 exam 3

The interval of time between the moment that a stimulus is presented to when a response is initiated is known as what?
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Which of the following is NOT true of response time?
It should not exceed four seconds
It is determined from the moment that a stimulus is presented to when a response is completed
It is the combination of reaction time and movement time
It is influenced by the number of response choices in a situation
_________ is the stage of information processing in which a person recognizes and distinguishes the input. Response programming- Stimulus identification Response selection Response interpretationStimulus identificationAccording to Hick's law, a negative linear relationship exists between the number of stimulus-response alternatives and choice reaction time. True FalseFalse_________ is the stage of information processing in which a person decides what to do with the information provided. Response selection Response programming Response interpretation Stimulus identificationResponse selectionTask specific characteristics that affect reaction time include all of the following, except: practice anxiety potential number of choices complexity of taskanxiety__________ is the stage of information processing in which the person organizes the motor system to produce the desired output. Response selection Stimulus identification Response interpretation Response programmingResponse programmingWhich of the following is the attentional style used by a bicycle courier maneuvering through New York City traffic? Narrow-external Broad-internal Broad-external Narrow-internalBroad-externalThe final fixation located on a specific target or object before the initiation of movement is which of the following? Visual finality Time to contact Correct! The quiet eye Absolute gazequiet eyeWhich of the following is the attentional focus used when strategic analysis is required? Narrow-internal Broad-external Correct! Broad-internal Narrow-externalbroad internalThe rate at which a retinal image enlarges is directly related to the speed of an object's approach and indicative of: Eye dominance Correct! Time to contact Optic imagery FixationTime to contactThe golf putt is an example of a ____________ targeting task. Fixed Moving Correct! Abstract ErraticabstractWhich of the following is the attentional style used to mentally rehearse an impeding action? Correct! Narrow-internal Narrow-external Broad-internal Broad-externalnarrow-internalWhat captures the relationship between arousal and performance? Correct! The inverted U hypothesis Hick's Law Perceptual narrowing The cue utilization hypothesisinverted uThe narrowing of attentional focus when arousal levels are higher than optimal is known as: Inverted U principle Hick's Law Correct! Perceptual narrowing Narrow internal focusperceptual narrowingWhich of the following is true of visual search? It is the inability to focus one's visual attention on a specific object. It is the focusing of one's visual attention on a specific object. Correct! It is the manner by which a performer directs his or her visual attention while trying to locate critical regulatory cues. It is the change in the environment that evokes a response.It is the manner by which a performer directs his or her visual attention while trying to locate critical regulatory cues.When designing training activities to enhance perceptual-cognitive skills there should be a high level of similarity between training and real-life performance learners attention should be directed to information-rich areas where critical cues occur the constraints that are presented for the performer to act upon must replicate those that occur in the performance environment Correct Answer all choices are appropriateAll choicesInstructions that induce an internal attentional focus Have been shown to be superior to instructions that induce an external attentional focus Direct the learner to focus on the effects of their movements Correct! Direct the learner to focus on their own body movements Direct the learner to focus on performance outcomeDirect the learner to focus on their own body movementsWhich of the following factors influence attentional demands on an individual (select all that apply): Correct! Environmental complexities Correct Answer Number of cues Correct! Task complexities Correct! Skill level of learnerallWhich of the following influence the optimal level of arousal? Correct! Task & learner characteristics Selective attention Task characteristics Learner characteristicsTask & learner characteristicsAn emotion resulting from an individual's perception of a situation as threatening is known as: Anticipation Correct! Anxiety Amplitude ArousalanxietyAttentional focus can only be voluntary to work well. True Correct! FalsefalseWhich reflex would occur if an individual were to touch a hot stove? Correct Answer The withdrawal reflex The parachute reflex The crossed extensor reflex A monosynaptic reflexThe withdrawal reflexWhich photoreceptor is specialized for color vision? Optic nerve Rods Optic chiasm Correct Answer ConesconesWhich is the area of the brain that organizes learned coordinated movements that involve complex sequencing of muscles? Correct Answer Premotor cortex Prefrontal cortex Secondary somatosensory area Association areapremotor cortexPrehension involves: grasping an object transporting the hand to a target location Correct Answer All of these choices are correct manipulating an objectallThe __________ system serves both central and peripheral visual fields. Fovea Focal system Correct Answer Ambient system Parallel processing systemambientWhich of the following is NOT true of the storage function of working memory? Correct Answer It has a limitless capacity Information can only be stored in it for 20-30 seconds unless it is given further attention Information is transmitted to the short-term memory after being selectively attended to in the sensory register Active processing is necessary to transfer information from the short-term memory to the long-term memorylimitless capacityWhich of the following sends a signal to the CNS indicating how much and how fast a muscle's length is changing? Golgi tendon organs Correct Answer Muscle spindles Joint kinesthetic receptors The vestibular apparatusmuscle spindlesWhich of the following is the area of the brain that plays a key role in the detection and correction of errors? General Interpretive area Basal ganglia Correct Answer Cerebellum DiencephaloncerebellumWhich visual pathway functions to identify objects primarily located in the central region of the visual field? Fovea Ambient system Parallel processing system Correct Answer Focal systemfocal system_____________ memory contains information about personal experiences and events associated with a specific time and context. Semantic Declarative Procedural & Episodic only Procedural Correct Answer EpisodicepisodicWhich of the following are light sensitive cells located in the eyes that convert an image into a nerve impulse? Correct Answer Photoreceptors Proprioceptors Exteroceptors InteroceptorsphotoreceptorsWhat is the primary receptor used in night vision? Correct Answer Rods Cones Optic chiasm Optic nerverodsAn interneuron is a nerve cell that does which of the following? Transmits motor information Correct Answer Lies between a sensory and motor neuron in a reflex arc Transmits sensory information Transmits visual informationLies between a sensory and motor neuron in a reflex arcWhich of the following provide information about body position and movement? Correct Answer Proprioceptors Interoceptors Exteroceptors NociceptorsproprioceptorsWhich of the following is the visual system that mountain bikers use to identify changes in the trail or a rider in front of them? Correct Answer Focal system Parallel processing system Ambient system Foveafocal systemTwo theoretical frameworks from which motor developmentalists subscribe are _____________ and ______________. Be sure to select the best choice. Dynamical Systems; Maturational theory Correct Answer Maturational theory; Ecological theory Perception-Action; Dynamical Systems Ecological theory & Dynamical SystemsEcological theory & Dynamical SystemsThe mountain of motor development, as described by Dr. Jane Clark, represents five distinct time periods across one's life. The ___________________ period, however, is one that refers to a time when we might regress then climb the mountain again due to illness or injury. Correct! Compensation Reflexive Fundamental Context-specificcompensationThe _______________________ period, according to Dr. Clark's mountain metaphor, is when movement tasks are refined and combined with other movement patterns to meet sport specific skills. Correct! context-specific fundamental patterns pre-adapted skillfullcontext-specificWhich one of the following measures of age is most often used, despite it is the least valid measure, morphological age Correct! chronological age skeletal age biological agechronological ageThe view many parents might have, "Oh, that's okay that Chad doesn't know how to dribble yet, it will come with time" is a long-standing stereotype from which theoretic perspective: Correct! Maturational theory Information processing theory Ecological theory Dynamic Systems theorymaturational theoryToy companies that create smaller versions of adult-like equipment (e.g., golf clubs, baseball bats and gloves, soccer balls, etc.) are ___________________ children the opportunity to perform the motor skill appropriately through _________________. Correct! affording; body scaling affording; rate limiter body scaling; affording rate limiting; task constraintsaffording; body scalingA child with small hands, might have a difficult time holding a 'junior' basketball properly. This is an example of what two constraints interacting with one another? Individual-structural & functional Environment & task Correct Answer Individual-structural & task Individual-functional & environmentIndividual-structural & task_____________________ is the notion that everyone will go through the same motor development sequences, while ____________________ is the notion we will go through the stages at different rates. Universality; body scaling Variability; body scaling Correct! Universality; variability Variability; universalityUniversality; variabilityDevelopment is defined as all of the following things, except: Correct! Development peaks when we reach maturation Development is sequential in order Development is related to but not dependent on age Development is a continuous processDevelopment peaks when we reach maturationThe muscular system is often noted as a _____________________ for many children when learning how to walk. Pre-adapted component Body scaling Correct! Rate limiter Perception-actionRate limiterDevelopmentally appropriate is specific to only children True Correct! Falsefalse____________________ refers to the pattern of growth that begins at the head and extends to toes. Correct! Cephalocaudal Puberty Directional Proximal distalCephalocaudalWhen we refer to development as being continuous in nature we can think about it as being all the following, except: qualitative directional multifactorial Correct! dependent on agedependent on ageDevelopment includes which domains (select all that apply): Correct Answer Psychomotor Correct! Cognitive Correct! Physical Correct! AffectiveallThe time period of motor development research that questioned whether development was a result of nature or nurture was the ________________ period. Correct Answer Maturational Information processing Normative PrecursormaturationalDuring early childhood, an individual will measure their level of competence by all of the following except: equating effort with ability Correct! comparison to peers feedback they receive from their parents mastery attempts- their ability to complete a taskcomparison to peersThe acquisition of fundamental motor skills/patterns is critical to motor development. Stodden and colleagues (2008) and other professional organizations recognize this importance in all of the following areas (select all that apply): Correct! health-risk behaviors Correct! physical literacy Correct! physically active for lifeallThe "proficiency barrier' identified by Seefeldt (1980) is defined as the failure to achieve similar levels of physical proficiency as one's peers. This barrier can be found after which period using the mountain of motor development (Clark & Metcalf, 2002)? context specific period skillful period Correct! fundamental patterns period reflexive periodfundamental patterns periodMiddle childhood has been identified in class as which time period: 7-9 years Correct! 6-9 years Correct Answer 7-8 years 8-10 years6-9 and 7-8During middle-late childhood one's physical activity levels will drive one's actual motor competence. t or ffalseDuring early childhood ________________________ is highly inaccurate and inflated. actual motor competence actual health related fitness Correct! perceived motor competence perceived health related fitnessperceived motor competenceDuring middle and late childhood the relationship between motor competence and physical activity with strengthen (either positively or negatively). Correct! True FalsetrueStodden and colleagues (2008) describe in their conceptual model a dynamic relationship exists between _______________ , Physical Activity, and the Risk of Obesity. Correct! (actual) motor competence motor confidence fitness(actual) motor competencePhysical literacy includes moving with confidence and competence in a single sport. True Correct! FalsefalseDuring middle and late childhood, an individual's perceived motor competence begins to more accurately judge their actual motor competence. This is developed through all of the following except: feedback from peers comparison to peers Correct! feedback from parents feedback from coachesfeedback from parentsPhysical literacy is the desire, ability, and confidence to be physically active for life. Correct! True FalsetrueIn the physical literacy reading sport is the only space where physical literacy is learned. True Correct! FalsefalseIt is both heredity and the environment that influence our growth and motor development. Correct! True FalsetruePhysical literacy requires only the development of motor skills True Correct! FalsefalseAccording to Project Play & the Aspen Institute, populations in greatest need for physical literacy include all of the following (select all that apply): Correct! African American & Hispanic youth boys Correct! girls Correct! youth in the south Correct! low income familiesall except for boys