26 terms

Myers for AP ~ Unit 11

Psych for AP - Unit 11
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intelligence
mental quality consisting of the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations.

mental ability to solve problems. apply knowledge to new situations, and learn from experience

EX: math skills
intelligence test
a method for assessing an individual's mental aptitudes and comparing them with those of others, using numerical scores.

a test that assesses people' mental abilities using number scores

EX: WAIS
general intelligence (g)
a general intelligence factor that, according to Spearman and others, underlies specific mental abilities and is therefore measured by every task on an intelligence test.

the g factor. Is an underlying part of all mental abilities and so is a part of every kind of intelligence

EX: if you have the g factor and you score well on one task you are likely to score well on the others
factor analysis
a statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items (called factors) on a test; used to identify different dimensions of performance that underlie a person's total score.

a way to identify the factors that contribute to your overall score on an intelligence test

EX: factor analysis would find that I have high verbal intelligence and a good memory
savant syndrome
a condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill, such as in computation or drawing.

a condition where someone has a low general IQ, but is exceptionally skilled at a a specific skill

EX: Kim Peek
grit
in psychology, it is passion and perseverance in the pursuit of long-term goals.

perseverance

ex: baseball players have to have grit to survive 4 at bats a game 162 games a season
emotional intelligence
the ability to perceive, understand, manage, and use emotions.

the ability to use/understand emotions

EX: the ability to tell when someone is mad or sad
mental age
a measure of intelligence test performance devised by Binet; the chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance.

the chronological age that most often corresponds with a certain level of performance.

EX: If I score an 11 when i'm 10 then I am bright because I am a mental year ahead
Stanford-Binet
the widely used American revision (by Terman at Stanford University) of Binet's original intelligence test.

Terman's popular revision of Binet's intelligence test

EX:
intelligence quotient (IQ)
defined originally as the ratio of mental age (ma) to chronological age (ca) multiplied by 100 . On contemporary intelligence tests, the average performance for a given age is assigned a score of 100.

originally (mentalage/chronlogical age)*(100) Now is just shorthand for a score on the intelligence test
achievement tests
tests designed to assess what a person has learned.

tests that assess what someone has learned

EX: The AP Psychology exam
aptitude tests
tests designed to predict a person's future performance; aptitude is the capacity to learn.

tests meant to predict how people will perform in the future through testing aptitiude

EX: the SAT
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)
the most widely used intelligence test; contains verbal and performance (nonverbal) subtests.

the most popular inteligence test. Includes both VIQ and PIQ subtests

EX:
standardization
defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested group.

giving scores a meaning (such as 100 being average) based on how a pretested group performed

EX: The WAIS test is standardized based on test takers from 2007
normal curve
(normal distribution) a symmetrical, bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many types of data; most scores fall near the mean (68 percent fall within one standard deviation of it) and fewer and fewer near the extremes.

the symmetrical bell curve that describes distributions on many different types of data. 68 percent of score fall within one standard deviation (SD) of the mean and 95 per. betwenn two SD.

EX: On an IQ test 68 percent of people fall between 85 and 115 (15 is one SD)
reliability
the extent to which a test yields consistent results, as assessed by the consistency of scores on two halves of the test, or on retesting.

how often a test generates consistent results.

EX: The WAIS id decently reliable becuase when taking the test the second time most people score within a few points of their first test.
validity
the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to.

the amount to which a test assesses what it is supposed to assess

EX: A test that measures my math ability is n't a very valid psychology test
content validity
the extent to which a test samples the behavior that is of interest.

the amount to which the content of a test assesses what it is supposed to assess

EX: A test that says it is a Psych test, but includes math probs has no content validity
predictive validity
the success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict; it is assessed by computing the correlation between test scores and the criterion behavior. (Also called criterion-related validity.)

the success a test has in predicting what it is made to predict

EX: intelligence test generally predict future performance and so have a high predictive validity
cohort
a group of people from a given time period

a bunch of people from the same time period

EX: the 2007 group used to restandardize the Wechsler test
crystallized intelligence
our accumulated knowledge and verbal skills; tends to increase with age.

a person's acquired knowledge and verbal skills

EX: part of my crystallized intelligence is the knowledge that 2+2=54
fluid intelligence
our ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease during late adulthood.

our capacity for performing abstract reasoning

EX: my fluid intelligence includes the capacity to do basic abstract calculus
intellectual disability
(formerly referred to as mental retardation) a condition of limited mental ability, indicated by an intelligence score of 70 or below and difficulty in adapting to the demands of life; varies from mild to profound.

a disability characterized by limited mental capabilities and diagnosed after a score of 70 or lower on an IQ test.

EX: my sister Amelia would qualify for an intellectual disability because she has Dravet Syndrome
down syndrome
a condition of intellectual disability and associated physical disorders caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21.

a genetic condition where the person has an extra 21st chromosome that often causes an intellectual disability

EX: My sister Abby
heritability
the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes. The heritability of a trait may vary, depending on the range of populations and environments studied.

the amount of variation among people that can be attributed to genes. Heritability findings may vary depending on the specifics of the study.

EX: The amount of the height difference between Asians and Americans that can be attributed to genes and not environment
stereotype threat
a self-confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype.

a self fulfilling prophecy where you believe in one stereotype to the extent that you fulfill it.
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