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166 terms

Ch4 Terminology

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cartilage
Nonvascular, firm connective tissue found mostly in joints
chiropractic
Diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of mechanical disorders of the musculoskeletal system
chiropractor
practitioner of chiropractic
detoxification
removing poison from a tissue or substance
ligament
brand of fibrous tissue connecting two structures
muscle
a tissue consisting of cells that can contract
musculoskeletal
pertaining to the muscles and the bony skeleton
orthopedic
pertaining to the correction and cure of deformities and diseases of the musculoskeletal;originally, most deformities treated were in children
orthopedist
specialist in orthopedics
osteopath
practitioner of osteopathy
osteopathy
medical practice based on maintaining the balance of the body
tendon
fibrous band that connects muscle to bone
cortex
outer portion of an organ, such as bone
cortical
pertaining to the cortex
diaphysis
the shaft of a long bone
epiphysis
expanded area at the proximal and distal ends of a long bone to provide increased surface area for attachment of ligaments and tendons
epiphysial
pertaining to the an epiphysis
haversian canals
vascular canals in bones
marrow
fatty, blood forming tissue in the cavities of long bones
medulla
central portion of a structure surrounded by cortex
medullary
pertaining to a medulla
periosteum
strong membrane surrounding a bone
periosteal
pertaining to the periosteum
achondroplasia
condition with abnormal, early conversion of cartilage into bone, leading to dwarfism
osteogenesis imperfecta
inherited condition when bone formation is imcomplete, leading to fragile, easily broken bones
osteomalacia
soft, flexible bones lacking in calcium(rickets)
osteomyelitis
inflammation of bone tissue
osteopenia
decreased calcification of bone
osteoporosis
condition in which the bones become more porous, brittle and fragile and more likely to fracture
rickets
disease due to vitamin D deficiency, producing soft, flexible bones
sarcoma
malignant tumor originating in connective tissue
osteogenic sarcoma
malignant tumor originating in bone producing cells
alignment
having a structure in its correct position relative to others
comminuted
a fracture in which the bone is broken into pieces
malunion
when two bony ends of the fracture fail to heal together correctly
nonunion
total failure of healing of a fracture
osteoblast
a bone forming cell
osteocyte
a bone maintaining cell
pathologic fracture
fracture occurring at a site already weakened by a disease process, such as cancer
reduction
restore a structure to its normal position
traction
pulling or dragging force
cervical
pertaining to the neck region
coccyx
small tailbone at the lowest end of the vertebral column
kyphosis
a normal posterior curve of the spine that can be exaggerated in disease
kyphotic
pertaining to or suffering from kyphosis
lumbar
lower back
sacrum
segment of the vertebral column that forms part of the pelvis
sacral
pertaining to or om the neighbor hood of the sacrum
scoliosis
an abnormal lateral curvature of the vertebral column
scoliotic
pertaining to or suffering from scoliosis
spine
vertebral column or short projection from a bone
spinal
pertaining to the spine
vertebra
one of the bones of the spinal column
vertebral
pertaining to the vertebra
whiplash
symptoms caused by sudden, uncontrolled extension and flexion of the neck, often in an automobile accident
cranium
the upper part of the skull that encloses and protects the brain
cranial
pertaining to the skull
ethmoid
bone that forms the back of thenose and encloses numerous air cells
lacrimal
lacrimal bone forms part of the medial wall of the orbit, or pertaining to tears
mandible
lower jaw bone
mandibular
pertaining to the mandible
maxilla
upper jaw bone, containing both right and left maxillary sinuses
maxillary
pertaining to the maxilla
occipital
the back of the skull
palatine
bone that forms the hard palate and parts of the nose and orbits
parietal
the two bones forming the sidewalls and roof of the cranium
sphenoid
wedge shaped bone at the base of the skull
temporal
bone that forms part of the base and sides of the skull
temporomandibular
the joint between the temporal bone and the mandible
zygoma
bone that forms the prominence of the cheek
zygomatic
pertaining to the cheek bone
acromion
lateral end of the scapula, extending over the shoulder joint
acromioclavicular
joint between the acromion and the clavicle
articulate
two separate bones have formed a joint
articulation
a joint
clavicle
curved bone that forms the anterior part of the pectoral girdle
clavicular
pertaining to the clavicle
dislocation
completely out of joint
humerus
single bone of the upper arm
pectoral
pertaining to the chest
pectoral girdle
incomplete bony ring that attatches the upper limp to the axial skeleton
scapula
shoulder blade
scapular
pertaining to the shoulder blade
subluxation
an incomplete dislocation when some contact between the joint surfaces remains.
capitulum
a small head or rounded extremity of a bone
pronation
process of lying face down or of turning a hand or foot with the volar (palm or sole) surface face down
prone
lying face down, flat on your belly
radius
the forearm bone on the thumb side
radial
pertaining to the radius or to any of the structures (artery, vein, nerve) named after it
supination
process of lying face upward or of turning a hand or foot so that the palm or sole is facing up
supine
lying face up, flat on your spine
trochlea
smooth articular surface of bone on which another glides
trochlear
pertaining to the trochlea
ulna
the medial and larger bone of the forearm
ulnar
pertaining to the ulna or to any of the structures (artery, vein, nerve) named after it
arthritis
inflammation of a joint or joints
carpus
the eight carpal bones of the wrist
carpal
pertaining to the wrist
metacarpal
the five bones between the carpus and the fingers
colles fracture
fracture of the distal radius at the wrist
eponym
a procedure or a diagnosis with a name derived from the name of the person who discovered it
heberden node
bony lump on the terminal phalanx of the fingers in osteoarthritis
metacarpophalangeal
the joints between the metacarpal bones and the phalanges
osteoarthritis
chronic inflammatory disease of joints
phalanx
one of the bones of the digits (fingers or toes)
phalanges
fingers or toes
rheumatism
pain in various parts of the musculoskeletal system
rheumatic
pertaining to or characterized by rheumatism
rheumatoid arthritis
systemic disease affecting many joints
acetabulum
the cup shaped cavity of the hip bone that receives the head of the femur to form the hip joint
femur
the thigh bone
femoral
pertaining to the femur
ilium
large wing shaped bone at the upper and posterior part of the pelvis
ischium
lower and posterior part of the hip bone
ischial
pertaining to the ischium
pelvis
basin shaped ring of bones, ligaments, and muscles at the base of the spine. also any basin shaped cavity like the pelvis of the kidney
pelvic
pertaining to the pelvis
pubis
alternative name for the pubic bone
pubic
pertaining to the pubic bone
sacroiliac joint
the joint between the sacrum and the ilium
symphysis
two bones joined by fibrocartilage; in this case, two pubic bones
arthrodesis
fixation or stiffening of a joint by surgery
brace
appliance to support a part of the body in its correct position
diastasis
separation of normally joined parts
radiology
the study of medical imaging
radiologist
medical specialist in the use of x-rays and other imaging techniques
arthrodesis
fixation or stiffening of a joint by surgery
arthroplasty
surgery to repair, as far as possible, the function of a joint
avascular
without blood supply
labrum
cartilage that forms a rim around the socket of the hip joint
necrosis
pathologic death of cells or tissues
necrotic
pertaining to an area affected by necrosis
prosthesis
an artificial part to remedy a defect in the body
prosthetic
pertaining to a prosthesis
collateral
situated at the side, often to bypass an obstruction
cruciate
shaped like a cross
fibula
the smaller of the two bones of the lower leg
fibular
pertaining to the fibula
meniscus
disc of cartilage between the bones of a joint, in this case, the knee joint
patella
think circular bone in front of the knee joint embedded in the patellar tendon; knee cap
tibia
the larger bone of the lower leg
tibial
pertaining to the tibia
arthrocentesis
aspiration of fluid from a joint
arthrography
xray of a joint taken after the injection of a contrast medium into the joint
arthroscopy
visual examination of the interior of a joint
arthroscope
Endoscope used to examine the interior of a joint
bursa
a closed sac containing synovial fluid
bursitis
inflammation of the bursa
debridement
the removal of injured or necrotic tissue
hyperflexion
flexion of a limb or part beyond the normal limits
meniscectomy
excision of all or part of a meniscus
prepatellar
in front of the patella
rupture
break or tear of any organ or body part
tendinitis
inflammation of a tendon
bunion
a swelling at the base of the big toe
calcaneus
bone of the tarsus that forms the heel
calcaneal
pertaining to the calcaneus
hallux valgus
deviation of the big toe toward the medial side of the foot
metatarsus
the five parallel bones of the foot between the tarsus and phalanges
metatarsal
pertaining to the metatarsus
podiatry
the diagnosis and treatment of disorders and injuries of the foot
podiatrist
practitioner of podiatry
Pott fracture
fracture of the lower end of the fibula, often with fracture of the tibial malleolus
talus
the tarsal bone that articulates with the tibia to form the ankle joint
tarsus
the collection of seven bones in the foot that form the ankle and instep
tarsal
pertaining to the tarsus