Chapter 33: The Great Depression and the New Deal
Terms in this set (82)
Franklin Delano Roosevelt
Democratic president who created the New Deal to counter the effects of the Great Depression
Wife and Cousin of FDR, most active and first first lady
37. What kind of man was FDR?
A man made strong from his debilitating condition and with a golden speaking voice. When he was Governor of NY he would always look out for the common people
38. What was Roosevelt's campaign message in the 1932 election?
Recover, Relieve, Reform, Don't overlook the forgotten man, he would balance the budgets of Hoover.
39. What were the immediate results of Roosevelt's victory?
The transition of Black Voters from the Republican Party to the Democratic.
A series of reforms enacted by the Franklin Roosevelt administration between 1933 and 1942 with the goal of ending the Great Depression.
Roosevelt-declared closing of all U.S. financial institutions on March 6-10, 1933, in order to stop panic and prepare reforms
The special session of Congress that Roosevelt called to launch his New Deal programs. The special session lasted about three months: 100 days.
Relief, Recovery, Reform
40. Describe the New Deal.
Roosevelt began his term with the hundred days congress in which he gave government extraordinary blank check powers as well as embranced many progressive ideas such as insurance for old, minimum wage and conservation
informal talks given by FDR over the radio; sat by White House fireplace; gained the confidence of the people
Glass-Steagall Banking Reform Act
that provided the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) which insured individual deposits up to $5000, thereby eliminating the epidemic of bank failure and restoring faith to banks.
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
It provides deposit insurance, which guarantees the safety of deposits in member banks, currently up to $250,000 per depositor per bank
FDR took the country off the gold standard and then inflated the currency by buying gold at higher prices. To relieve the misery of the debtor.
41. What were the key aspects of FDR's monetary policy?
FDR passed the Emergency Banking Relief Act which gave him power to regulate banks, he then passed the Glass-Stegall Banking reform act which created the FDIC insuring banks with up to 5,000 for each person. FDR aimed for inflation.
Government action taken to stimulate the economy, as spending money in the commercial sector, cutting taxes, or reducing interest rates
Civilian Conservation Corps. It was Relief that provided work for young men 18-25 years old in food control, planting, flood work, etc.
EXISTING IN A WILD OR UNTAMED STATE
in charge of Works Progress Administration,
Agricultural Adjustment Administration: attempted to regulate agricultural production through farm subsidies; ruled unconstitutional in 1936; disbanded after World War II
(Home Owners' Loan Corporation) Relief and Recovery. Helped home-owners and mortgage companies. government payed companies for the home-owners so they could keep their homes and pay off w/ lower interest and longer time.
Civil Works Adminstration: emergency work relief program, put more than four million people to work during the winter of 1933-34
42. Explain the difference between New Deal agencies and what radical critics wanted the government to do.
CCC- Civilian COnservvation CORps- Jops to 3 million
FERA- Fedreal Emergency Relief Act and Administration- 3 billion 3 direct relief and for civil works projects
CWA-Civilian Works Administration- Used to provided emergency jobs during winter, branch of Fera
AAA- Agricultural Adjustment Act- dollars to help meet morgages
HOLC- Home owners Loan Corporation- money to help people pay for homes
Father Charles Coughlin
Decidedly Anti New Deal
Advocated for sharing of wealth, 5,000 to each family
Dr. Francis E. Townsend
In support of giving 200 a month to elderly people
Work Progress Administration: Massive work relief program funded projects ranging from construction to acting; disbanded by FDR during WWII
43. List other historical demagogues.
Coughlin- Anti New Deal
Long- 5,000 to every family
Townsend- Pro Old People 200 monthly pay
WPA- Works Public Administration gave employment
First Female secretary of labour
Mary McLeod Bethune
United States educator who worked to improve race relations and educational opportunities for Black Americans (1875-1955)
Developed the "culture and personality" movement, establishing the study of cultures as collective personalities.
Coming of Age in Samoa
novelist who won Nobel Peace prize, advanced humanitarian causes. "Americans in China"
44. Explain the factors that made it possible for these women to gain fame.
Perkins- first female secretary of labor
Bethune- advisor to FDR and founded school
Buck- novel about peasant life in china
National Recovery Administration: established and adminstered a system of industrial codes to control production, prices, labor relations, and trade practices
Sick Chicken Decision
Supreme Court decision in 1935 causing the collapse of the NRA. It said that Congress could not delegate legislative powers to the president.
(Public Works Administration) Relief and Recovery. Harold Ikes was in charge. It was a longterm and industrial recovery and an unemployment relief.
Secretary of Interior and Director of PWA
45. How did the NRA attempt to restore industry?
NRA wanted to restore industry by lowering the number of hours of a shift to increase jobs
Schetcher Sick Chicken Decision made it so that the president could not have legislative powers
46. HOw did the federal government attempt to help farmers?
By telling/paying them not to farm, The Agricultural Adjustment Administration told farmers to work less and to set their goods at parity prices, original prices to up purchasing power
Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment cut down on land use
A drought in the 1930s that turned the Great Planes very dry.
Okies and Arkies
people from Oklahoma and Arkansas whose farms and homes were destroyed by the drought and dust storms and therefore they decided to move to the West Coast, only to find that they were not welcome there
The Grapes of Wrath
The story follows the fortunes of a poor family as they travel from the Dust Bowl region to California. based on the great depression written by John Steinbeck
Indian Reorganization Act
1934 - Restored tribal ownership of lands, recognized tribal constitutions and government, and provided loans for economic development.
47. HOw did nature cause problems for some farmers on the plains?
The great Dust Bowl made the area infertile causing the people to flee to California, Frazier-Lemke Farm Bankruptcy Act temporarily suspended mortgage foreclosure to counter this
san Joaquin Valley
Okies went to this place in CA the most
Farm Sercurity Administration
a few Okies were able to buy land and erect small houses creating "Okievilles" or "Little Oklahoma's". They formed a bed rock of a still thriving subculture in California.
48. In what ways were things better in California? In what were they the same?
Better in that the land was useable, bad in that poverty was the same.
Federal Securities Act
(FDR) 1933, 1934, , required promoters to transmit to the investor sworn information regarding the soundness of their stocks and bonds
Concerned with worldly rather than spiritual matters
49. "Reformist New Dealers were determined from the outset to curb the money changes...." Explain.
Congress passed the "Truth in Securities Act" (Federal Securities Act), requiring promoters to transmit to the investor sworn information, as well as Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). It was designed as a watchdog administrative agency.
(Tennessee Valley Authority Act) Relief, Recover, and Reform. one of the most important acts that built a hyro-electric dam for a needed area.
Conservatives believed that many of the New Deal programs were begining to resemble socailism programs
50. What arguments were used for and against the TVA project?
Good, full employment, cheap power, reforestation, flood control
Bad, looks like socialism
Federal Housing Administration
The federal government's program for providing income when earnings are reduced or stopped by retirement, disability, or death.
51. How did the FHA and Social Security attempt to help some of society's least fortunate?
USHA- lend money for cheap construction
Socia security- insurance
1935, also National Labor Relations Act; granted rights to unions; allowed collective bargaining
National Labor Relations Board
A 1935 law, also known as the Wagner Act, that guarantees workers the right of collective bargaining sets down rules to protect unions and organizers, and created the National Labor Relations Board to regulate labor-managment relations.
Congress of Industrial Organizations. proposed by John L. Lewis in 1932. a federation of unions that organized workers in industrial unions in the United States and Canada from 1935 to 1955.
JOhn L. Lewis
He was a miner known for creating the United Mine Workers. He helped found the CIO and was responsible for the Fair Labor Standards Act.
method of boycotting work by sitting down at work and refusing to leave the establishment
52. How did labor respond to the improvement of conditions brought about by the New Deal
Wagner Act produced the NLRB which served to ensure protest rights. CIO formed by Lewis to organize strikes
govenor from kansas who ran for president against Roosevelt in 1936 election; didn't except Social Security Act
AMerican Liberty League
A conservative anti-New Deal organization; members included Alfred Smith, John W. Davis, and the Du Pont family. It criticized the "dictatorial" policies of Roosevelt and what it perceived to be his attacks on the free enterprise system.
53. WHat was the significance of the 1936 election?
FDR beat Ladon with south blacks urbanites and poor
54. WHy did Roosevelt ask Congress for a bill that would allow him to add justices to the Supreme Court?
To balance out the existing Hoover ultraconservatives
Attempt by Roosevelt to appoint one new Supreme Court justice for every sitting justice over the age of 70 who had been there for at least 10 years. Wanted to prevent justices from dismantling the new deal. Plan died in congress and made opponents of New Deal inflamed.
Justice who argued the First Amendment protects all publications, even wholly obscene ones.
55. WHat were the consequences of FDR's attempt to pack the Court?
Justice Roberts voted liberal, eventually FDR appointed all 9 first of whom was Hugo Black, FDR however lost much political goodwill
1937 economic downturn caused by sound fiscal policy due to cut spending and higher taxes
John Maynard Keynes
British economist who argued that for a nation to recovery fully from a depression, the govt had to spend money to encourage investment and consumption
1939 - Prohibited federal office holders from participating actively in political campaigns or soliciting or accepting contributions.
56. Assess the successful of FDR in his second term.
Economy downturn had to be dealt with, Keyenian economics, planned deficit spending used. Reorgaizational Act gave FDR admin powers. Hatch act banned all political spending
57. WHat criticism of the New Deal seems most fair to you? Least Fair?
Most fair, that it shot up the debt
Least fair, that it should not have happened
58. What is the textbook author's opinion of Roosevelt? Do you agree?
Arthur Schlesinger Jr.
Wrote "A Thousand Days" about the JFK presidency
Said New Deal was a revolutionary response to a revolutionary situation
Constraints School of Historians
a group of historians writing about the New Deal in the 1970s 80s and 90s. They conclude that the new deal offered as much reformist circumstances allowed and as the majority of Americans wanted.
New Deal Coalition
coalition forged by the Democrats who dominated American politics from the 1930's to the 1960's. its basic elements were the urban working class, ethnic groups, Catholics and Jews, the poor, Southerners, African Americans, and intellectuals.
59. What did William Leuechtenburg mean when he called the New Deal a "half-way revolution?" (Your answer should focus more on the information before this term than on the information after it.)
Revolutions ususally are in factor of one extreme or another, the new deal was about reform not revolution and rooselvet wasn't interested in throwing out the old system, just making amendments to the current