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Terms in this set (60)
• Arabic plural meaning "those who sacrifice themselves,"Palestinian fedayeen are militants or guerrillas of a nationalist orientation from among the Palestinian people. The fedayeen made efforts to infiltrate territory in Israel in order to strike targets in the aftermath of the 1948 Arab-Israeli War.
• Lasted four centuries (1516-1918)

• Controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia, the Caucasus, North African, and the horn of Africa
• The Tanzimat reform
o Aimed at political and religious equality for all Ottoman subjects, and partly because of indirect European involvement and intervention in the affairs of the empire.
o Helped Jewish cause in Palestine
o Made Jews, Christians, and Muslims feel equal, so a revolt would never start up.
o A secret agreement between Britain and France, if the Ottoman Empire was defeated.
o Divide provinces under Ottoman rule.
o British allocations
• coastal strip between the sea and River Jordan, Jordan, southern Iraq, and the area holding the ports of Haifa and Acre (Palestine)
o French allocations
• South-eastern Turkey, northern Iraq, Syria, and Lebanon
• Mapai-Laboro Led by Ben Gurion o Early and major labor party in Palestine-Israel• Hovevei Ziono The first Zionist settlement in the Land of Israel• Revisionists-Herut or Revisionist Zionists (pg. 44)o Founded in 1925 by Vladimir Jabotinsky o Demanded a Jewish state, not merely a homeland, on both sides of the Jordan River• Yishuv (pg. 27)o Jewish population in PalestineSupreme Muslim Council (pg. 45,51)• Controlled the Muslim courts and schools and much of the revenue generated by religious charitable endowmentsWorld Zionist Organization (pg. 24,39,44,45,48)• Set out to build the financial and economic instruments and political structure to achieve a Jewish company. Formed by purchasing land and organizing the settlers.Jewish Agency for Palestine• Provided for in League of Nations • Responsible for aliyahs, absorbtion of Jews and their families.Arab Higher Committee (1936) (pg. 46) (more on pg. 51)• Leaders of five of the six parties ( that of the Nashibi family remained aloof) formed a body. • Hajj Amin al-Husseini as its president • Arab resistance against the British Mandate of PalestineHaganah• Translates to "defense" • At first, the underground Jewish defense organization during the mandate period. Merged into Israel Defense Forces (IDF) in 1948 when Israel was founded.LEHI• Hebrew initials for "Fighters for the Freedom of Israel." Also known as the Stern Gang. • Group under Avraham Stern that broke away from the Irgun to undertake terrorist attacks against both military and civilian targets during the British mandate period in Palestine.Etzel (Irgun)• "National Military Organization" • Military arm of Revisionist Zionist movement, created in 1937. • Taken over by Menachem Begin in 1942 • Carried out attacks against British military and immigration authorities in Palestines, including blowing up a wing of the King David Hotel.Pan-Arabs/Pan-Arabism/Nasserism (pg. 116)• Gamal Abdul Nasser o President of Egypt in 1954 o Goals were to remove western influence from the Middle East • Determination to eradicate IsrealArab League (pg. 80)• Established in Cairo in 1945 • Endorsed by Great Britain as a possible way to influence and provide a sounding board and outlet for ideas of Arab nationalism.United Nations• UNRWA o United Nations Relief and Works AgencyThe Arab Revolt (in Palestine)The Arab Revolt (in Palestine) (1936-1939) (pg.51) • spontaneous acts of violence by a religiously and nationalistically motivated group inspired by Sheikh Izz ad-Din al-Qassam o a preacher in a Haifa mosque, killed by British in 1935 • Arab political parties put aside their differences and formed Arab Higher Committee o Held conferences that called for civil disobedience, nonpayment of taxes, and shutting down the municipal governments. • Thousands of Arabs mobilized and attacked British military, and sometimes Jews. • British poured in 20,000 troops to control the situationWar of Independence of 1948 (pg. 97-100)• Ben-Gurion declared independence o US and Soviet Union recognized them shortly after • Arab Legion attacks o Egyptian Army moved through Gaza and Beersheeba o Lebanese Army went into Arab Galilee o Iraqis moved alongside the Arab Legion o The Syrians remained at the border • May 14th, General Assembly had passed a resolution providing for a UN mediator in Palestine o Count Folke Bernadotte • Succeeded in arranging a month long truce in mid-June o Israelis used truce to build up their supply of arms from Czechoslovakia and other countries. o Israel secured Tel-Aviv. • December 1st King Abdullah of Transjordan agreed a cease-fire with Israel o February 24th Egypt signed an Armistice agreement with Israel, followed by Lebanon, Syria, and Transjordan o By the end of fighting Israel was in control of 75% of Palestine.The Lavon Affair (1954) (pg. 125)• As British prepared to depart from Egypt, US indicated it may be sympathetic to Egypt's military and economic needs • So, Israel used agents in Egypt to sabotage American and British installations in the hope that Egypt would be blamed and a wedge created between Egypt and the USThe Suez Crisis & War (1956) (pg. 122-127)• Egypt bought arms from Soviet Union • US offered economic assistance to build a dam on the Nile River • Nasser didn't immediately accept. • Americans became angered with Arab nationalism and the lack of desire to follow American game plan for the region. • Last straw for American was Nasser's recognition of Communist China • US withdrew loan offer • Nasser nationalized Suez Canal in order to pay for the costs of the damn • Israel, Britain, and France tried to topple Nasser's efforts • On November 6th-7th Britain agreed to a cease-fire. • Although defeated militarily, Nasser and the Egyptians were the big winners politically. • Nasser became the face of Pan-Arabism • Soviet Union reinforced relations with Arabs and funded the building of the Aswan High DamSix Day War (1967)• A war between Israel and Egypt, Syria, and Jordan • Began with Israel launching surprise strikes against Egyptian air fields in response to Egyptian forces mobilization • Israel invaded Jordan's West Bank • Israel had air clashes with Syria as well as clashed on the border • Israel also attacked Syria from Golan Heights • In the end Israel was victorious in 6 days and won major land o The Gaza Strip, the Sinai peninsula, the West Bank, East Jerusalem, and the Golan Heights.King-Crane Commission (pg. 41)• The commission confirmed the Arab rejection of Zionist goals, as well as Arab opposition to the possible imposition of French Rule. • If independence were unattainable, and if they had to accept a form of temporary outside control, then the Arabs preferred American or, secondarily, British supervision.Churchill White Paper (pg. 48-49)• Reaffirmed Britain's commitment to the Balfour Declaration and stated that the Jews were in Palestine "by right and not on sufferance," but that all citizens of Palestine were Palestinians. • There would be a Jewish home in Palestine—and that Jewish immigration should not exceed the economic absorptive capacity of the country, a principle extrapolated from the mandate instrument and enunciated at the time of the first immigration ordinance in 1920.The Peel Commission Report (1937) (pg. 51)• Proposed for the first time that the territory be portioned into separate Jewish and Arab states. • It recommended a small Jewish state of approximately 5,000 square kilometers and an Arab state that would be merged with Transjordan under Emir AbdullahThe 1939 White Paper (pg. 54)• Declared that Palestine would become an independent state that allied to the British Empire within ten years. • Repudiated the Balfour Declaration and reversed British policy in Palestine • Arabs, however, with their leadership destroyed, were in no position to act upon the White PaperUNSCOP (1947) (pg. 80-81)• UN Special Committee on Palestine of eleven neutral nations to investigate and draw up recommendations o Australia, Canada, Czechoslovakia, Guatemala, India, Iran, the Netherlands, Peru, Sweden, Uruguay, and Yugoslavia • Given the task of investigating all aspects of the Palestine question, including the plight of the displaced persons • In the majority proposal, of the 10,000 square miles comprised of Palestine, the Arabs were to retain 4,300 square miles and the Jews were allotted 5,700 square miles.Defense (Emergency) Regulations (pg. 107)• Israeli military governors had extensive powers over the Palestinians. • Arabs could be exiled or arrested and detained without reason; villages and land could be expropriated by declaring an area a "security zone"The Status Quo Agreement (1947)• In September 1947 Ben-Gurion reached a status quo agreement with the Orthodox Agudat Yisrael party. He sent a letter to Agudat Yisrael stating that while he is committed to establishing a non-theocratic state with freedom of religion he is promising that Shabbat would be Israel's official day of rest, that in State-provided kitchens there will be access to Kosher food, that every effort will be made to provide a single jurisdiction for Jewish family affairs, and that each sector would be granted autonomy in the sphere of education, provided minimum standards regarding the curriculum are observed.Law of Return (1950) (pg. 105)• Stated that Jews immigrating to Israel were entitled to citizenship automatically—that is, without undergoing a naturalization process.The Baghdad Pact (1955) (pg.120-121)• 1955 pro-Western defense alliance between Turkey, Iraq, Iran, Pakistan, and the United Kingdom. • The Pact's purpose was the "maintenance of peace and security in the Middle East region" (Preamble) and called on member-states to "cooperate for their security and defense" (Article 1) and to "refrain from any interference whatsoever in each other's internal affairs" (Article 3). "Open for accession to any member of the Arab League or any other slate actively concerned with the security and peace in this region" (Article 5), the American-engineered alliance was intended to satisfy several objectives (Europa, p. 102).Leo Pinskerwas a physician, a Zionist pioneer and activist, and the founder and leader of the Hovevei Zion- refers to organizations that are now considered the forerunners and foundation-builders of modern Zionism.Theodor Herzlan Austro-Hungarian journalist, playwright, political activist, and writer. He was one of the fathers of modern political Zionism.Abdul HamidAbdul Hamid refused Theodor Herzl's offers to pay down a substantial portion of the Ottoman debt (150 million pounds sterling in gold) in exchange for a charter allowing the Zionists to settle in Palestine.Chaim Azriel Weizmannwas a Zionist leader and Israeli statesman who served as President of the Zionist Organization and later as the first President of Israel.Joseph Trumpeldoran early Zionist activist and war hero. He helped organize the Zion Mule Corps and bring Jewish immigrants to Palestine.General Edmund AllenbyBritain. In deliberate contrast to the perceived arrogance of the Kaiser's entry into Jerusalem on horseback in 1898, Allenby dismounted and together with his officers, entered the city on foot through the Jaffa Gate out of respect for the status of Jerusalem as the Holy City important to Judaism, Christianity and IslamHerbert SamuelTwo months after Britain's declaration of war on the Ottoman Empire in November 1914, Samuel circulated a memorandum entitled The Future of Palestine to his cabinet colleagues, suggesting that Palestine become a home for the Jewish people under the British Rule. He served as High Commissioner until 1925 Samuel was the first Jew to govern the historic land of Israel in 2,000 years.[The Second Aliyahwas an important and highly influential aliyah that took place between 1904 and 1914, during which approximately 20,000 Jews immigrated into Ottoman Palestine, mostly from the Russian Empire.Meir Dizengoffwas a Zionist politician and the first mayor of Tel Aviv.David Ben-Gurionwas the primary founder and the first Prime Minister of Israel.Ze'ev Jabotinsky, MBE,was a Revisionist Zionist leader, author, poet, orator, soldier and founder of the Jewish Self-Defense Organization in Odessa.Thomas Edward Lawrence (Lawrence of Arabia)was an archaeologist and British Army officer renowned especially for his liaison role during the Sinai and Palestine Campaign, and the Arab Revolt against Ottoman Turkish rule of 1916-18.King FaisalDuring the 1973 Arab-Israeli War, launched by Sadat, King Faisal withdrew Saudi oil from world markets, in protest over Western support for Israel during the conflict. This action increased the price of oil and was the primary force behind the 1973 energy crisis.King Husseinwas King of Jordan. Hussein's rule extended through the Cold War and four decades of Arab-Israeli conflict. He recognized Israel in 1994, becoming the second Arab head of state to do so (after Anwar Sadat in 1978/1979).Musa Kazim al-Husseiniheld a series of senior posts in the Ottoman administration. He belonged to the prominent al-Husayni family and was mayor of Jerusalem (1918-1920).Raghib Nashashibisucceeded Musa Kazim al-Husayni as mayor of Jerusalem in 1920Hajj Amin al-Husseiniwas a Palestinian Arab nationalist and Muslim leader in Mandatory Palestine. Al-Husseini was the scion of a family of Jerusalemite notables.Sheikh Izz ad-Din al-Qassamwas a Syrian-born Palestinian Muslim preacher who was a leader in the fight against British, French, and Zionist organizations in the Levant in the 1920s and 1930s.Yitzhak Rabinwas an Israeli politician, statesman and general. He was the fifth Prime Minister of Israel, serving two terms in office, 1974-77 and 1992 until his assassination in 1995. Rabin was raised in a Labor Zionist householdAriel Sharonwas an Israeli politician and general who served as the 11th Prime Minister of Israel until he was incapacitated by a stroke. Sharon was a commander in the Israeli Army from its creation in 1948.Gamal Abdel Nasser Husseinwas the second President of Egypt, serving from 1956 until his death.Yasser Arafatwas chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization from 1969 until his death in 2004, a tumultuous period in which clashes with neighboring Israel were prevalent.