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Biology 22 The Respiratory system
Terms in this set (40)
What is the function of te resporatory system?
To supply the body with oxygen and dispose of carbon dioxide.
What is respiration and what are its four steps?
-Respiration is the collective process that allows the respiratory system to function.
-The four steps are:
(1) Pulmonary ventilation (commonly called breathing): Air is moved in and out of the lungs during inspiration and expiration so the gases there are continuously changed and refreshed.
(2) External respiration: Oxygen diffuses from the lungs to the blood, and carbon dioxide diffuses from the blood to the lungs.
(3) Transportation of respiratory gasses: Oxygen is transported from the lungs to the tissue cells of the body, and carbon dioxide is transported from the tissue cells to the lungs. The cardiovascular system accomplishes this transport using blood as the transporting fluid.
(4) Internal respiration: Oxygen diffuses from blood to tissue cells, and carbon dioxide diffuses from tissue cells.
What is the difference between the conduction zone, of the respiratory system and the respiratory zone?
-Conducting zone: includes all other respiratory passage ways, which provide fairly rigid conduits for air to reach the gas exchange sites. The conducting zone organs also cleanse, humidify, and warm incoming air. As a result, air reaching the lungs hs fewer irritants (dust, bacteria, etc.) than when it entered the body, and it is warm and damp, like the air of the tropics.
-Respiratory Zone: The actual site of gas exchange, is composed of the respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, and alveoli, all microscopic structures.
What is the anatomy of the nose?
The nose is formed from the maxillary, nasal, frontal, ethmoid, sphenoid and vomer bones and cartilage (both hyaline and elastic).
What is the function of the nasal meatuses and conche?
-Nasal Meatuses: Narrow grove between the conche, causing turbulence. This swirling aids in filtering, humidifying and wariming the incoming air by forcing it into contact with the mucous membranes.
-Conche: greatly increase the musosal surface area exposed to air and enhance air turbulence in the cavity.
What is the name, location, and function of the 4 paranasal sinses?
The maxillary, frontal, ethmoidal, and sphenoidal sinuses are located in the cranial bones surrounding the nasal cavity. They do most of the same things the nasal cavity does, which is produce mucus; filter, warm, and moisten incoming air, and are the resonance chamber for speech.
What is the description and location, and openings of the three areas of the pharynx?
-Nasopharynx: Loacated from the internal nares to the soft palate; contains entrances to the auditory (eustachian) tubes and teh associated tubal tonsils and teh pharyngeal tonsil; lined with respirator epithelium; only air passes through here (soft palate and uvula prevent entrance of food during sllowing)
-Oropharynx: Between the soft palate and the base of the base of the tongue to the epiglottis; contains palatine and lingual tonsils; because both food and air pass through, it is lined with stratified squamous epithelium.
-Larngopharynx: From epiglottis to larynx where it becomes continuous with the esophagus; again, both food and air move through so it is lined with stratified squamous epithelium
What is the anatomy of the larynx?
The larynx, or voice box, extends for about 5 cm (2 inches) from the level of the thid to the sixth cervical vertebra. superiorly it attahes to teh hyoid bone and opens into the laryngopharynx. inferiourly it is cotinuous with the trachea.
How are vocalizations made?
As you look down into the glottis, you will see two pairs of mucosal folds. The superior pair of folds is known as the false vocal cords. They are relatively inelastic and function to prevend foreign objects from entering the glottis and protect the underlying true vocal cords. Air passing the glottis causes the true voacal cords to vibrate producing sounds. The sounds are modified by: tension placed on the vocal cords by skeletal muscle, resonance and amplification added by the revereration of the sound through the hollow structures above the vocal cords and by the position of the lips, tongue and cheeks.
What is the funtion of the epiglottis?
When you swallow food, the epiglottis folds over the glottis to stop liquid and food from entering the trachea (wind pipe) thus, food goes right to the esophagus so that one would not get choked. It also serves to produce speech sounds in some languages.
What is the anatomy of the trachea?
The trachea, colloquially called windpipe, is a tube that connects the pharynx and larynx to the lungs, allowing the passage of air, and so is present in all air-breathing animals with lungs. Only in the lungfish, where the lung is connected to the pharynx and the larynx, it is absent. The trachea extends from the larynx and branches into the two primary bronchi. At the top of the trachea the cricoid cartilage attaches it to the larynx. This is the only complete ring, the others being incomplete rings of reinforcing cartilage. The trachealis muscle joins the ends of the rings and these are joined vertically by bands of fibrous connective tissue, the annular ligaments of trachea. The epiglottis closes the opening to the larynx during swallowing. The trachea is supported by approximately 20 C-shaped cartilages. The open ends of the C's point posteriorly and are connected by elastic ligaments that prevent over expansion and smooth muscle that allows control of the tracheal diameter by the ANS. The trachea lies immediately anterior to the esophagus, having the open ends of the cartilages adjacent to the esophagus ensures smooth passage of food.
What is the function of the tracheal cartilages?
- Submucosa: A connective tissue layer deep to the mucosa, contains seromucous glands that help produce the mucus "sheets" within the trachea. The submucosa is supported by 16-20 C-shaped rings of hyaline cartilage encased by the adventitia.
-Adventitia: The outermost layer of connective tissue. The trachea's elastic elements make it flexible enough to stretch and move inferiorly during inspiration and recoil during expiration, but the cartilage rings prevent it from collapsing and keep the airway patent despite the pressure changes that occur during breathing.
-Trachealis: The open posterior parts of the cartilage rings, which abut the esophagus are connected by smooth muscle fibers of the trachealis and by soft connective tissue. Because this portion of the tracheal wall is flexable, the esophagus can expand anteriorly as swallowed food passes through it. Contraction of the trachealis muscle decreases the trachea's diameter, causing expired air to rush upward from the lungs with greater force. This action helps expel mucus from the trachea when we cough by accelerating the exhaled air to speeds of 100 mph!
-Carina: Projects posteriorly from its inner face, marking the point where the trachea branches into the two main bronchi. The mucosa of the carina is highly sensitive and violent coughing is triggered when a foreign object makes contact with it.
What is the anatomy of the bronchial tree?
The right and left primary bronchi travel in a groove on the medial surface of the lungs (hilus) before branching. The right is wider and more vertical, so most inhaled foreign objects land there. The primary bronchi branch into smaller secondary bronchi, then into even smaller tertiary bronchi. When the diameter of the airway has reached 1 mm, it is termed a bronchiole.
What effects do parasympathetic and sympathetic stimulation have on the bronchial tree?
Parasympathetic stimulation causes bronchoconstriction while sympathetic stimulation causes bronchodilation.
What is the respiratory membrane and what are its components?
-The walls of the alveoli are composed primarily of a single layer of squamous epithelial cells, called type I aveolar cells, surrounded by a flimsy basement membrane. The external surfaces of the alveoli are densely covered with a "cobweb" of pulmonary capillaries. Together, the capillary and alveolar walls and their fused basement membranes form the respiratory membrane, a 5.0-um-thick blood air barrier that has blood flowing past on one side and gas on the other. Gas exchanges occur readily by simple diffusion across the respiratory membrane - O2 passes from the alveolus into the blood, and CO2 leaves the blood to enter the gas filled alveolus.
What is the microscopic anatomy of the alveoli and what are the names of functions of their cells?
-Microscopic Anatomy: The last, or terminal, bronchioles end in respiratory bronchioles which open into chambers called alveolar ducts. The blind pockets that open off these chambers are the alveoli. The alveoli are the sites of gas exchange and are surrounded by capillaries and also by elastic fibers.
-Cells: The aveolar wall contains two types of epitelial cells: (1) Type I cells - simple squamous epithelial cells and form the majority of the alveolar wall. Produce the enzme that converts angiotensin I (from kidney's) to angiotensin II (vasoconstrictor to increase bp) (2) Type II cells (septal cells): Secrete alveolar fluid which keeps the surface of the alveolus mois. As is the case with other body fluids, alveoli are very small and te mutual attraction of the water molecules could pull the walls of the alveolus together and cause it to collapse. The alveolus would thus be non-functional. Alveolar fluid contains surfactant, a substance tat reduces the surface tension of the alveolar fluid and prevents collapse of the alveolus.
-Also present within the alveoli are alveolar macrophages (dust cells) taht wander around and clean up debris.
-The respiratory membrane across which gas exchange takes place is composed of te cells of the alveolar wall, the fused basement membranes 0f th alveolar cell wall and the capillary, and the endothelial cells.
What is the gross anatomy of the lungs and pleurae?
-Lungs: Consitute all the contents of the thoracic cavity outside the mediastinum. Each lung is enclosed in a pleural cavity that is lined by parietal pleura. The pleura produce and are separated by a thin layer of pleural fluid that reduces friction during breathingand also acts to adhere the parietal and visceral pleura to each other. This holds the lungs open. The lungs are attached to the mediastinum b roots composed of both branchi and blood vessels and nerves. The curved apex of each lung extends into the base of the neck while the concave base is located near the superior surface of the diaphragm. The anterior, lateral and posterior surface, being next to the ribs, is refereed to as the costal surface. The medial surface of the left lung contain the cardiac notch which hold the pericardial cavity. Each lung is divided into lobes (the left has two and the right has three). The parenchyma of the lung consists of small air-filled pockets while the stroma is mostly elastic connective tissue. This combinations gives the lungs a soft, spongy consistency and makes them highl elastic.
-Pleura: The lungs are enclosed within the pleural cavities. The parietal pleura is attached to the wall of the thoracic cavity while the visceral pleura covers the surface of the lungs. A thin film of serous fluid acts as a lubricant and causes the two membranes to stick together. This adhesive force is very strong and it would take a very large force to wrench the two layers of pleura apart.
What is the adjustments made to respiration during excercise and during adaptation to high altitude?
Excercise: Respiratory adjustments during exercise are geared both to intensity and duration of the exercise. Working muscles consume remendous amounts of O2 and produce large amounts of CO2 , so ventilation can increase 10- to 20- fold during vigorous excersise. Increased ventilation in response to metabolic needs is called hyperpnea.
-High Altitude: The body makes respiratory and hematopoietic adjustments via an adaptive response called acclimatization. Decreases in arterial Po2 cause the peripheral chemoreceptors to becomre more responsive to increase in Pco2 and a substatial decline in P02 directly stimulates them. As a result, ventilation increases as the brain attempts to restore gas exchange to previous levels.
What are the factors that influence breathing rate and depth of breathing?
-Physical Factors - Although brain centers set the basic rhythm of breathing, there is no question that physical factors such as talking, coughing, and exercise can modify both the rate and depth of breathing. Volition (conscious control) - While we have the ability to change our breathing rate for a short period of time, voluntary control is limited, and the respiratory centers will simply ignore messages from the cortex (conscious center of the brain) when the oxygen supply in the blood is getting low or blood pH is falling.
-Chemical Factors - Although many factors can modify respiratory rate and depth, the most important factors are chemical.
Increased levels of carbon dioxide lowers blood pH as more carbonic acid is produced. This is the most important stimuli leading to an increase in the rate and depth of breathing. Conversely, changes in oxygen concentration in the blood are detected by chemoreceptor regions in the aortic arch and carotid body. These, in turn, send impulses to the medulla when blood oxygen levels are dropping. Although every cell in the body must have oxygen to live, it is the body's need to rid itself of carbon dioxide (not to take in oxygen) that is the most important stimulus for breathing in a healthy person.
When blood begins to become slightly alkaline, for whatever reason, breathing slows and becomes more shallow. Slower breathing allows carbon dioxide to accumulate in the blood and brings blood pH back into normal range.
How does the irritant and inflation reflexes influence breathing rate and depth?
-Pulmonary Irritant reflexes: The lungs contain receptors that respond to an enormous variety of irrritants. When activated these receptors communicate with the respiratory centers via vagal nerve afferents. Accumulated mucus, inaled debris such as dust, or noxious fumes stimulate receptors in the bronchioles that promote reflex contriction of those air passages. The same irritants simulate a cough in the trachea or bronchi, and stimulate a sneeze in the nasal cavity.
-Inflation Reflex: As the lungs recoil, the stretch receptos become quiet, and inspiration is initiated once again. This reflex, called the inflation reflex or Hering-Breuer reflex is thought to be a more protective response (to prevent the lungs from being stretched excessively) than a normal regulatory mechanism.
How does the higher brain center and chemical factors influence breating rate and depth?
-Higher brain center: Through hypothalamic controls, an increased body temperature will cause an increase in respiratory rate. A student cold shock will have the opposite effect (if you fall through the ice into cold water, our breathing will stop) Strong emotions also affect breathing. You also have voluntary control of breathing, although these will be overridden if blood carbon dioxide levels reach levels that stimulate reflexive breathing.
-Chemical factors: Chemical control of breathing is mediated primarily via a feedback mechanism arising from stimulation of the central and peripheral chemoreceptors. (1) Central Chemoreceptors: These are located in the medulla and are primarily influenced by the pH of the cerebro spinal fluid (CSF), and interstitial fluid of the brainstem. CSF does not contain the protein hydrogen buffers found in blood, therefore and increase in partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2) causes and increase in hydrogen ion concentration, The central chemoreceptors are then stimulated to increase the rate and depth of breathing to get rid of the carbon dioxide (CO2) thereby bringing the pH back towards normal. Should the opposite occur and the hydrogen ion concentration of the CSF is low the chemoreceptors send a message to decrease the rate and depth of respiration, thereby retaining CO2 and bringing the pH towards normal. Chemoreceptors do not respond to devreases in the partial pressure of oxygen (PO2)
(2) Peripheral Chemoreceptors: Include the carotid and aortic bodies. They are primarily stimulated by an increased PCO2 or an increase in hydrogen ion concentration (pH), but are less sensitive to these changes than are the central chemoreceptors. The peripheral chemoreceptors are also sensitive to the PaO2 of blood. Hypoxaemia will lead to an increased rate and depth of breathing. With chronic hypoxaemia the stimulation of these receptors becomes depressed.
Explain Intrapulmonary and Intrapleural Pressure and explain their role in respiration
Intrapulmonary= (Ppul-0mmHg) it is the pressure in the alveoli. the pressure rises and falls with the phases of breathing but ALWAYS equalizes with atmospheric pressure 760mmHg. Its role in respiration is to move air into the lungs and keep the air pressure inside the lungs lower than outside.
Intrapleural= (Pip 4mmHg) it fluctuates with breathing phases but its always about 4mmHg which is less than intrapulmonary. Intrapleural is always negative to Intrapulmonary. Intrapleural is negative because of the strong adhesive forces of the parietal and visceral pleura. Its role in respiration is to keep the pleural fluid actively pumped out of the pleural cavity and into the lymphatic's continuously to keep negative pressure. If the fluid accumulates it will create a positive pressure which will result in collapsing of the lungs.
Define Pulmonary Ventilation
It consists of inspiration and expiration, a mechanical process that depends on the volume changes in the thoracic cavity.
What is Boyles law and how does it relate to pulmonary ventilation
Boyles law is the relationship with pressure and gas. The pressure of gas varies inversely with its volume. (P1V1=P2V2) It relates to pulmonary ventilation when during inspiration the diaphragm and external intercostals contract expanding the volume in the thoracic cavity. Then air pressure in the thoracic cavity is decreased and air moves to the lungs. In expiration it does the opposite, the thoracic cavity decreases in volume and air moves to the lungs. During forceful expiration the internal intercostals and abdominal muscles contract and decrease the volume of the thoracic cavity pushing air out of the lungs. Ex: in an airplane as it takes off the air pressure decreases that allows air in your middle ear to expand then pushes on tympanic membrane. You relieve the pressure by opening the auditory tube that will allow air pressure to equalize.
Describe Inspiration, Forced Inspiration, Normal Expiration, and Forced Expiration. Include the muscles that are used to accomplish this
-Inspiration=brings air into the lungs, expands the thoracic cavity (quieting breathing). Muscles involved= diaphragm, external intercostals, sternocleidomastoid, scalene, perctoralis minor, erector spinae.
-Forced Inspiration=Fast paced breaths, one on top of another, usually during exercise or people chronic pulmonary diseases. Muscles Involved= Scalenes, sternocleidomastoid, pectoralis minor, erector spinae
-Normal Expiration=quiet expiration, air leaving the lungs, inspiratory muscles relax, highly depends on lung elasticity. Muscles Involved=interior intercostals, abdominals.
-Forced Expiration= Forces all the air or as much as it can out of the lungs. Muscles Involved=obliques, transverse muscles, internal intercostals.
Explain how the following affect Pulmonary ventilation: Airway Resistance, Alveolar Surface Tension, and Lung Compliance
-Airway Resistance=Usually resistance of the airways provides no impediment airflow. But acute bronchoconstriction (asthma attacks) will interfere with airflow.
-Alveolar Surface Tension= Compensated by producing surfactant. Its usually a problem with premature infants because it adequately reduces surface tension for the alveoli, With out it the alveoli cannot open.
-Lung Compliance=Depends on how much the lungs can stretch, if the thoracic cavity can expand, the amount of surfactant the can be produced and is available, and if any of these decrease will decrease lung compliance.
Define and be able to calculate: Tidal Volume, Inspiratory Reserve Volume, Expiratory Reserve Volume, Residual Volume, Inspiratory Capacity, Functional Residual Capacity, Vital Capacity and Total Lung Capacity
-Tidal Volume (TV)=Normal quiet breathing, air moves in and out of the lungs with each breath. (500mL)
-Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV)= Amount of air that can be inspired forcibly beyond the tidal volume expiration. (Men-3100mL)(Women-1900mL)
-Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV)= Amount of air that can be forcefully exhaled after a normal tidal volume expiration. (Men-1200mL) (Women-700mL)
-Residual Volume (RV)=Amount of air remaining in the lungs after a forced expiration. (Men-1200mL) (Women-1100mL)
---The first 4 are Respiratory Volumes---
-Total Lung Capacity (TLC)= Maximum amount of air contained in the lungs after a maximum inspiratory effort. (TLC=TV+IRV+ERV+RV) (Men- 6000mL) (Women-4200mL)
-Vital Capacity (VC)= Maximum amount of air that can be expired after a maximum inspiratory effort. (VC=TV+IRV+ERV) (Men-4800mL) (Women-3100mL)
-Inspiratory Capacity (IC)= Maximum amount of air that can be inspired after a normal tidal volume expiration. (IC=TV+IRV) (Men-3600mL) (Women-2400mL)
-Functional Residual Capacity(FRC)=Volume of air remaining in the lungs after a normal tidal volume expiration. (FRC=ERV+RV) (Men-2400mL)(Women-1800mL)
---The last 4 are Respiratory Capacity---
Define and be able to calculate alveolar ventilation rate
The respiratory efficiency and measures the volume of fresh air that flows in and out of the alveoli.
AVR = Frequency X (TV - Dead Space(150mL) )
(mL/Min) (breaths/min) (mL/breath)
What is Daltons Law and how does it apply to gas exchange
Daltons law states that in a mixture of gases the total pressure equal the sum of the partial pressure exerted by each gas. The pressure exerted by each gas is directly proportional to the percentage of that gas in the gas mixture. It applies to gas exchange by partial pressure. We can measure air pressure because its a mixture of gases and they are a democracy. Each gas has a pressure equivalent to the percent of the mixture it occupies. Ex: O2 comprimises 20.9% of the air and air pressure is 760mmHg. The amount of pressure exerted is (0.209 x 760) =159 mmHg. The partial pressure of O2 is 159mmHg.
What is Henrys Law and how does it apply to gas exchange
When gas is in contact with a liquid the gas will dissolve in the liquid in proportion to its partial pressure. The greater the concentration of a gas in its particular phase the more faster the gas will go into the solution of the liquid. It applies to gas exchange by the partial pressure and it depends on the solubility of gas in a liquid and the temperature of a liquid. At partial pressure CO2 rather than O2 dissolves in H2O and no N2. When a liquid temp rises gas solubility decreases. An example is opening a bottle of soda. When you open it the gas is released and decreased, if you leave it at room temp it will flatten faster but if you put it in the refrigerator it takes a little longer.
Describe the composition of alveolar gas
It contains more CO2 and water vapor and less O2. The differences reflect the effects of gas exchanges occurring in the lungs, humidification of air, and the mixing of alveolar air that occurs with each breath. -N2=74.9% PP= 569mmHg -O2=13.7% PP=104mmHg -CO2=5.2% PP=40mmHg -H2O=6.2% PP=47mmHg
Explain pulmonary gas exchange. Include the roles of partial pressure gradients and gas solubility's, ventilation perfusion coupling and the structure of respiratory membrane
It is the process of gas exchange between the lungs and external environment. It takes place in the lungs between the alveoli and the blood with the external environment. It removes the CO2 from the blood and replenishes it with O2. It occurs down a pressure gradient via diffusion. The air we breath in is a mixture of gases that has a pressure related to their concentration= partial pressure gradients. Partial pressure gradients role is to get O2 and CO2 diffused across the respiratory membrane. The respiratory membrane consists of a thickness of 0,5-1um and has a large alveolar surface. This helps with the role for ventilation perfusion coupling. It is for optimal gas exchange by matching in the amount of gas reaching the alveoli and the blood flow in the pulmonary capillaries. The gas solubility in pulmonary gas exchange is that even with the O2 pressure gradient being much steeper than CO2, equal amounts still get diffused because CO2 is much more soluble in fluid of the alveolar and plasma than O2.
Describe how the medullary respiratory respiratory centers and pontine respiratory centers regulate respiration
-The medullary inspiratory center, located in the medulla oblongata, generates rhythmic nerve impulses that stimulate contraction of the inspiratory muscles (diaphragm and external intercostal muscles). Normally, expiration occurs when these muscles relax, but when breathing is rapid, the inspiratory center facilitates expiration by stimulating the expiratory muscles (internal intercostal muscles and abdominal muscles).
-The pheumotaxic area, located in the pons, inhibits the inspiratory center, limiting the contraction of the inspiratory muscles, and preventing the lungs from overinflating.
The apneustic area, also located in the pons, stimulates the inspiratory center, prolonging the contraction of inspiratory muscles.
Explain internal respiration. Include the roles of partial pressure gradients and gas solubility's
Internal respiration involves capillary gas exchange in body tissues. The partial gradient pressures and gas solubility is opposite of pulmonary gas exchange. But factors promoting gas exchange are the same system as the lungs use. In this case O2 will move much more rapidly into the tissues than CO2. But CO2 will move quickly along its pressure gradient in blood. The results in venous blood draining the tissue capillary beds and returning to the heart, O2 has a P02 of 40mmHg and CO2 a Pco2 of 45mmHg. This is all completed using simple diffusion.
Describe how oxygen is transported in the blood
Oxygen is transported in the blood my attaching itself to hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is able to carry 4 O2 molecules.
How do pH, Pco2 and temperature affect hemoglobin affinity for oxygen
pH, PCO2 and Temperature all affect hemoglobin's affinity for oxygen by modifying hemoglobin's 3-dimensional structure. Increasing temperature or PCO2 levels in the blood lowers hemoglobin's affinity for O2 that increases oxygen from unloading from the blood. Decreasing those factors will decrease oxygen unloading. When pH decreases (acidosis) which leads to the Bohr effect, will increase oxygen unloading where its most needed. All together all 3 of the factors will work depending on how much O2 is needed to be unloaded in hard working cells.
What is BPG and what does it do
BPG is an organic chemical made by RBC's that ensures to get adequate O2 delivered to tissue cells. It binds reversibly with hemoglobin and its levels will rise when O2 levels are chronically low.
Does fetal hemoglobin have a higher or lower affinity for oxygen than adult hemoglobin? Why is this important
Fetal hemoglobin has a higher affinity than an adult because it gives the developing fetus better access to oxygen from the mothers bloodstream. Its important because the fetus's lungs are still developing and haven't produced surfactant to be able to breath on its own. But by being able to use the mother the fetus is able to survive.
Describe how carbon dioxide is transported in the blood
CO2 is transported in the blood by 3 different ways, 1. dissolved into plasma, 2. Chemically bound to hemoglobin, 3. As bicarbonate ions into the plasma.
-1. The smallest amounts of CO2 is transported by simply dissolving into the plasma about 7-10%.
-2. Dissolved CO2 is bound and carried in the RBC's as carbaminohemoglobin which does not need a catalyst, it binds to amino acids of globin (not heme) it readily binds to hemoglobin in the tissues where PCO2 is higher in blood. Deoxygenated hemoglobin combines more readily with CO2. (202%)
-3. Most CO2 molecules entering the plasma quickly enter the RBC's where the reactions that prepare CO2 for transport as bicarbonate ions.
What is Carbonic acid-bicarbonate buffer system and how does it work
It is a chemical system that helps maintain pH homeostasis of the blood. For example if the hydrogen ion concentration in blood begins to rise excess H+ is removed by combining with HCO3- to make carbonic acid. Now if H+ in the blood drops to low carbonic acid dissociates and releases hydrogen ions and then it lowers the pH in blood. Changes in the respiratory rate or depth can help with making these changes. When you want to accumulate CO2 in the blood slow shallow breaths will help. But fast rapid breathing will flush CO2 out of the blood, both circumstances help in adjusting the ph.
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