COGNITIVE PROCESSES EXAM 2
Terms in this set (109)
The name of the memory model that serves as the basis for most research on memory is the ..
modal model of memory
Sperling's delayed partial-report procedure provided evidence that
Information in sensory memory fades in less than a second.
The capacity of STM is about how many items?
The primary benefit of chunking is to..
store information in STM more efficiently.
In Conrad's 1964 study, participants
were more likely to confuse the letters "P" and "B" than the letters "P" and "R" .
Which of the following correctly describes the word-length effect?
It is harder to remember lists of longer words than lists of shorter words.
The serial position curve plots
recall accuracy as a function of the order in which words were presented.
According to the levels of processing theory..
Making a connection between each word and so
mething you've previously learned. This is the best long-term memory task for a set of words.
The main idea behind long-term potentiation
is that learning leads to enhanced firing of neurons.
We are consciously aware of..
Your text describes an "Italian woman" who, after an attack of encephalitis, had difficulty remembering people
or facts she knew before. She could, however, remember her life events and daily tasks. Her memory
Intact episodic memory but
defective semantic memory.
Patient H.M. clearly illustrates that..
the hippocampus is crucial for the form of new long-term memories.
Components of Working Memory
A. viuospatial sketch pad
B. phonological loop
C. Central executive
Components of Modal model memory
Sensory memory - STM - LTM
SPERLINGS PARTIAL REPORT TASK
main purpose cue is to tell subjects which letters to report.
PHYSIOLOGICAL STUDIES INIDICATE THAT THE DAMAGE TO THE AREA OF THE BRAIN
known as prefrontal cortex, can distrupt working memory
Chase & Simon 1973 found that chess experts were better than beginners in their memory task because
the experts were better at chunking chess pieces together.
Working memory differs from STM in that
working memory consists of multiple components.
Conrad 1964 presented people with lists of letters to remember. He found that people were most likely to confuse a "P" with an
Welsh speakers have smaller digit spans than English speakers because
Welsh digits take longer to pronounce than English digits.
If a politician memorizes a speech that they have to give later on in the day. During this event, she can bring the spech to mind, even if she knows it. This example is a failure of ..
In Sperlings Partial Report Task, with a 1000- millisecond delay, participants will mostly rely on
Brown-Pterson Task was developed to measure
how long STM can store info w/o rehearsal.
in working class memory, articulatory suppression interferes with memory because it distrupts
Capacity of STM
is 7 items
A participant in a study is given a list of words to remember. One week later she attempts to recall the list. If one of the words from the original list was "big". Which of the fllowing , none that were on the list ,would she most likely mistaken for "big" ?
which illustrates double dissociation b/w episodic memory and semantic memory?
one patient that has difficulty remembering what he ate for breakfast or where he went yesterday, but can define words he knows; another patient can remember events from his life but has trouble defining words.
What helps us find information in LTM
when we learn something new, the connections b/w individual neurons begin to change almost immediately by becoming weaker or stronger. this type of change is known as..
Example of Episodic Memory
"I REMEMBER THE DAY WE LEARNED ABOUT HOW TALKING ON CELLPHONES CAN IMPAIR DRIVING ABILITY
LONG TERM POTENTIAL
has many NEW neurons
This amnesia involves forgetting older information
This amnesia involves trouble learning new info
Defining characteristics of implicit memory is that
we are not conscious that we are using it.
Type of info that will be stored in SEMANTIC MEMORY
the name of the 1st 5 presidents of the U.S.
Statement that is associated with levels of processing theory
Deep processing takes longer than shallow processing and results in better memory
Is a plot of memory for words as a function of the order in which the words were presented.
Serial Position Curve
Recency Effect is attributed to
recall info from STM
Most likely cause the Recency Effect to disappear
Counting Backwards for 30 sec before recall
Example of Maintenance Rehearsal
Repeating a word over and over again
If you learned a word while exercising, you will then be more likely to remember that when you are not exercising
Patient H.M. illustrates that it is crucial for formation of new long term memory in the
The generation effect in memory refers to
ease of remembering info that you come up with yourself.
the following is an effective tool for learning
writing shit in your own words
Modal Model of Memory the word "modal" refers to ..
the models popularity
ATKINSON & SHIFFRIN 1968
"Modal" model of memory
1. INPUT (ENCODE IN MEMORY)
2. SENSORY MEMORY
store how you look,hear the world briefly. Photograph is temporary. Decays quickly, but takes in everything by our senses.
Q: how many letters can you store in short time?
A: average 4-5 .
TESTED SENSORY MEMORY :
A. Whole Report Procedure
B. Partial Report Procedure
B. Partial Report Procedure
cue indicates which letter(s) to report. Cue directs attention . It is possible that we only remember 4/12 letters which is normal.
EX: "only report the top row"
SPERLING 1960 SENSORY MEMORY
9/12 IS GREAT MEMORY, you will start off will storing a lot of letter but after a while, it will decay.
CUE PROCESS: the closer the cue appears after the letters disappear is imp. Reason why memory decreases over time due to DELAY of appearance of the arrow. has to do will RECALL .
Visual sensory memory : photograph of the shape of how things look..not meaningful or processing here
auditory sensory memory: hearing systems recording of the echo of how things sound.
temporary storage! lasts longer but stores less information, but has more meaningful information
DURATION OF STM
DURATION OF STM ; Found that STM lasts about 15-20 seconds without rehearsal.
Memory Capacity of STM
7 =-2 items
capacity is not increasing. You are using the same amount of space more efficiently.
Ericcson et al. (1989) studied a student they called "S.F."
S.F. was a distance runner, so he knew decent times for different distances. He chunked the digits into meaningful running times.
Before he remembered 7 #. After training, he was able to remember 79 #'s with practice.
Results of Chase and Simon's (1973a, 1973b) chess memory experiment.
(a) The chess master is better at reproducing actual game positions.
(b) Master's performance drops to level of beginner when pieces are arranged randomly. The chess masters aren't better with the pieces per se, but the game positions make sense to them, so they see meaning.
The random positions are meaningless, so they are no better than beginners.
Auditory code: What does it sound like?
Visual code: What does it look like?
Semantic code: What does it mean?
Auditory Code Conrad (1964)
DEMO : Letters coded based on sound. some people might get confused. Must have store letters based on what they sound like, even though presentation was visual. Demonstrates the existence of auditory codes. We are able to say words internally not externally.
Visual Code Posner & Keele (1967)
Present two letters, one after the other.
Participants indicate whether or not they are the same letter.
A-A SAME FAST
A-a SAME LETTER, different shape FAST
A-M Different letter and shape SLOW
RESULTS: Visually identical is faster. Note that if coding was auditory only, there would be no difference.
Since they can tell that A-a are the same, there must be some other coding as well, but the main point is that there must be visual code.
Semantic Code Shulman (1970)
Visually present a list of words.
Show subjects a word and ask whether it had been on the list. Another recognition memory task.
RESULTS: Synonym errors:
Confuse "talk" for "speak"
Confuse "pain" for "hurt" based on MEANING!!!!!!!
WORKING MEMORY (Braddley)
The idea of WM was developed to get people away from the idea of STM as a passive receptacle for information.
It's "working" to keep information and store it efficiently, and it's transforming the information as needed.
PROBLEM W/ STM
B. Phonological similarity, they might sound similar but harder to remember.
C. Articulatory suppression: the longer it takes you to repeat the longer you are taking up Subvocal rehearsal.
D. Linguistic Differences: Language usage.
PHONOLOGICAL LOOP BRADDLEY
You remember verbal information by saying things to yourself repeatedly.
A. subvocal rehearsal
B. phonological store
A. subvocal rehearsal
you repeat it to yourself, "carrot" then you refresh it an put it back in the loop
B. phonological store
allow loop to refresh, if the word "carrot" isnt repeated, then it will decay.
Visuospatial Sketch Pad
Stores visual and spatial information. Now called Visual working memory. This is what the professor is studying.
A.visual = images
B. spatial = locations
DIFFERNCE B/W WM AND STM
STM is a single component
WM consists of multiple parts
is part of WM where its sandwiched in b/w phological loop and sketchpad. Suppresses irrelevant information
Aids in transfer of information to LTM.
WM and the Brain
EX: monkeys, neurons in the frontal lobe still fire after the item disappears.
EX: humans, nuerons fire in the temporal lobe and parietal lobe.
Better recall of the first several items on a list.
Better recall of the last few items on a list.
counting task and Serial Position Curve
you can see a primary effect but n recency effect. prevented people from rehearsing the last few words, so they faded from memory
Two types of memory tests:
b. recognition: do you remember later on if you've seen the word before? 50%
Duration of LTM
some things you know temporarily, but you may not be thinking about them, so they are not in STM. Some items may be lost. it can be permanent.
Real-World Memory Tasks
Q: What kind of task is a:
Short-answer question= recall
Multiple-choice question= recognition
We tend to remember meaning. We disregard details, such as grammar.
Two Types of Rehearsal
B. Elaborative rehearsal
Repeating information again and again
to fashion from the raw material
to work out in detail, give finish or completeness to.
Creating a story
Levels of Processing Theory
A. Shallow processing:
little attention to meaning (poor memory)
close attention to meaning (good memory)
Encoding in the Brain
Learning in the brain involves changes at synapses
New connections formed
Previously formed connections can become stronger
Long-term potentiation (LTP)
THEORY OF HOW YOU MAKE NEW MEMORIES :) . The record next to the electrode indicates the rate of firing in the axon of neuron B. (b) As the stimulus is repeated structural changes are beginning to occur. (c) After many repetitions, more complex connections have developed between the two neurons, which causes an increase in the firing rate, even though the stimulus is the same that was presented in (a).
PROCESS OF MAKING MEMORIES STRONGER AND LESS FRAGILE
does play a critical role in forming new memories
Memory for Emotional Stimuli (may enhance consolidation) this is next to the Hippocampus.
The situation in which the memory was encoded influences how it can be retrieved later.
Repetition Priming TULVING 1982
If you showed someone a list of words, they are more likely to unconsciously remember more words the next time.
What are the 3 stages in the Modal Model?
sensory memory, short-term memory, long-term memory
What are the 2 tasks used by Sperling?
whole-report and partial-report
How long does sensory memory last?
about half a second (500 milliseconds)
How long does short-term memory last?
with rehearsal, as long as needed; without rehearsal, 15-30 second
What did Conrad's experiment show?
STM can store auditory codes
What are the 3 components of working memory?
phonological loop, visuospatial sketchpad, central executive
What are the parts of auditory/verbal WM?
phonological store, subvocal rehearsal
What kind of information is stored in LTM?
What are the two types of rehearsal?
maintenance rehearsal and elaborative rehearsal
Which type of rehearsal is more effective? Why?
elaborative; focus on meaning makes it more likely to transfer to LTM
What is the generation effect?
material you generate yourself is easier to remember
What is synaptic consolidation?
immediate change in some synaptic connections when you start to learn something new
What do you need to find information in LTM?
What is declarative memory?
information you are conscious of
What are the two types of declarative memory?
episodic and semantic
What are memories without conscious awareness?
What are memories for skills?