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2.2 Weathering, Erosion, and Sedimentation
Terms in this set (30)
The chemical and physical processes that break down rock at Earth's surface.
water and oxygen exposure change a rocks chemical composition
For example, rain dissolves minerals (calcium) and takes to ocean through run-off
Also, salts in ocean change chemical composition
ex. rusting iron
also called mechanical weathering, rocks are broken down into smaller pieces without changing chemical composition
ex. water goes into rock crevices and when temperatures get cold, it freezes and expands which causes crevices size to increase (repeats)
any weathering that's caused by the activities of living organisms.
ex. burrowing animals, like rabbits, can burrow into a crack in a rock
The process by which wind, water, ice, or gravity transports soil and sediment from one location to another
when ice formations called glaciers slide down a mountain, picking up pieces of mountain with them
gravitational forces moves rock form one location, such as a cliff, to another, such as the ocean
ex. avalanche, landslides
when the wind picks up small pieces of sand and moves it from one place to another
water picks up sediments and carries them through rivers/run-off to the ocean
process of sediment being laid down in a new location
ex. rocks are carried by rivers, and the faster the river the bigger the rock can be. Once the river can't carry it anymore, such as it slows down, the rock will sediment at the bottom of the ocean or wherever it's left (HELPS SHAPE COASTLINE)
made of granite, resistant to weathering but exposed to it physically and chemically. also exposed to erosion through wind, water, and gravity. Erosion causes smaller rocks at low water marks and bigger rocks at high water marks. HIGH SPEEDS OF WATER=LOW SEDIMENTATION
Made up of loose deposits of sand. formed by low erosion of sandstone and high sedimentation of sand particles. In constant motion as water/wind move sand. More sedimentation than erosion.
found in protected areas. Least weathering and erosion. Small water movement so deposition is low. Sedimentation is what forms this shore
partially enclosed body of waterwheel fresh water (river) meets salt water (oceans)=brackish. Sheltered from waves so LOW EROSION. bottom has sand/silt that sink when water is still= HIGH SEDIMENTATION. LOW WEATHERING.
ex. bays, lagoons
the triangle-shaped mouth of river formed by deposition of sediments. HIGH SEDIMENTATION= river flows towards mouth and picks up sediments. River widens when approaching se which causes water to move slow so sediments sink and settle at bottom
ex. Mississippi Rive delta.
the periodic rise and fall of the surface of the ocean resulting from gravitation pull of moon and sun
tides that occur two times a day
tides that occur once a day
difference in tide height between high and low tide
creates greatest tidal range (highest of highs and lowest of lows). Occurs when sun, earth, and moon are aligned. Alignment amplifies the gravitation pull of sun and moon towards earth and overall causes a larger than average ocean bulge.
occur when sun and moon are at right angles of each other and causes a SMALL tidal range as sun and moon pull at opposite directions
A continuous physical movement of water caused by wind or density
A horizontal movement of ocean water that is caused by wind and that occurs at or near the ocean's surface
Causes moving air and water to turn left in the southern hemisphere and turn right in the northern hemisphere due to Earth's hemisphere.
global conveyor belt
also called Thermohaline circulation. driven by differences in density due to changes in temp and salinity. that carries cold saline water from the Arctic Ocean through the deep Atlantic towards the Pacific
the movement of cold- nutrient rich water from the deep ocean to the surface. Caused by warmer water being pushed away from the coastline, causing a low-pressure area that brings colder water to the surface.
El Nino Normal conditions
warm water is pushed to the west so cold water rises (upwelling) and brings nutrients. warm water evaporates in the west and causes storms to occur.
wind pushes east and keeps warm water off the western coast of South America. prevents upwelling due to build up of warm water. western countries like Australia experience drought conditions. cold water fish die due to low productivity
A cooling of the ocean surface off the western coast of South America. occurs after El Niño. pushes the warm water build up to the west which allows cold water to rise along with the nutrients. this helps productivity in the ocean increase. Causes hurricane activity in Atlantic which affects North America.
Actual low tide will be lower than predicted because high atmospheric pressure pushes water down further
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