AP World History Study Guide
Terms in this set (90)
a member of a nomadic group whose food supply depends on hunting animals and collecting plant foods.
the shift from hunting of animals and gathering of food to the keeping of animals and the growing of food on a regular basis around 8,000 BC
A type of agricultural activity based on nomadic animal husbandry or the raising of livestock to provide food, clothing, and shelter.
the social process whereby cities grow and societies become more urban
Increase in the number of people who inhabit a territory or state
when countries focus on the things that their resources allow them to do best
the science and technology of metals
Tools (wood, metal, bronze, iron)
equipment used to help make a task easier
a society in an advanced state of social development (e.g., with complex legal and political and religious organizations)
a crude uncouth ill-bred person lacking culture or refinement
mud or clay or small rocks deposited by a river or lake
the land between the Tigris and Euphrates
Code of Hammurabi
the set of laws drawn up by Babylonian king Hammurabi dating to the 18th century BC, the earliest legal code known in its entirety
an ancient kingdom in southern Mesopotamia
Tigris and Euphrates
Rivers in the Fertile Crescent
a way of supplying water to an area of land
an area in the southern region of Babylonia in present-day Iraq
An ancient seafaring civilization located on the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea
a political unit governed by a deity (or by officials thought to be divinely guided)
a political system governed by a few people
belief in multiple Gods
belief in a single God
the monotheistic religion of the Jews having its spiritual and ethical principles embodied chiefly in the Torah and in the Talmud
located on the Nile; ruled by pharaohs; civilization based on geography
Egyptian ruler who was believed to be the son of Re, the sun god, in human form. He had total authority over people and land.
an ancient region of northeastern Africa (southern Egypt and northern Sudan) on the Nile
an empire in southern Asia created by Cyrus the Great in the 6th century BC and destroyed by Alexander the Great in the 4th century BC
558- 333B.C.E, first Persian Empire, founded by Cyrus who capitalized on weakening Syrian and Babylonian empires. Peak was under Darius
a royal dynasty ruling Iran from 250 B.C.E-226 B.C.E, established themselves as lords of a powerful empire based in Iran that they extended to Mesopotamia.
Empire that developed in the Middle East in 227 CE, attempted to revive the glories of the Persian Empire (including a revival of the Persian religion Zoroastrianism)
system of religion founded in Persia in the 6th century B.C.E by Zoroaster
a Persian prophet, lived around 600 B.C. taught that the earth is a battleground where a great struggle if fought between the spirit of good and the spirit of evil, founder of Zoroastrianism
people with no permanent home; move from place to place in search of food.
Is physical movement by humans from one area to another, sometimes over long distances or in large groups. The movement of populations in modern times has continued under the form of both voluntary migration within one's region, country, or beyond.
the Egyptian concept of truth, justice, and cosmic order, represented by a goddess, often portrayed with a feather upon her head
A legal code developed by King Hammurabi of Mesopotamia. The code was influential in the establishment of Hebrew and Islamic law and in the U.S. judiciary system. It specified crimes and punishments to help judges impose penalties.
dynasty who ruled over a late neolithic people in early China
Second Chinese dynasty (about 1750-1122 B.C.) which was mostly a farming society ruled by an aristocracy mostly concerned with war. They're best remembered for their art of bronze casting.
the imperial dynasty of China from 1122 to 221 BC; notable for the rise of Confucianism and Taoism
The dynasty that replaced the Zhou dynasty and employed Legalist ideas in order to control warring states and unify the country.
imperial dynasty that ruled China (most of the time) from 206 BC to 221 and expanded its boundaries and developed its bureaucracy
a major river of Asia in northern China
Huang He Valley
earliest Chinese settlement (Yellow River Valley: loess); Xia, Shang, Zhou Kingdoms; concept of Mandate of Heaven and the Dynastic Cycle; developed pictographs and used oracle bones
City in the Wei Valley in eastern China. It became the capital of the Zhou kingdom and the Qin and early Han Empires. Its main features were imitated in the cities and towns that sprang up throughout the Han Empire.
an ancient trade route between China and the Mediterranean (4,000 miles)
Mandate of Heaven
Chinese religious and political ideology developed by the Zhou, was the prerogative of Heaven, the chief deity, to grant power to the ruler of China.
In China, a political philosophy that emphasized the unruliness of human nature and justified state coercion and control. The Qin ruling class invoked it to validate the authoritarian nature of their regime.
the teachings of Confucius emphasizing love for humanity
in Confucian thought, one of the virtues to be cultivated, a love and respect for one's parents and ancestors
It is a philosophy which is founded by Laozi. Daoism emphasizes living in harmony with nature
the theological doctrine that human reason rather than divine revelation establishes religious truth
Andean societies developed largely in isolation. The heartland of early Andean society was the region now occupied by the states of Peru and Bolivia. In the absence of abundant pack animals or a technology to facilitate long-distance transportation, geography discouraged the establishment of communications between the Andean region and Mesoamerica.
The first Mesoamerican civilization. Between ca. 1200 and 400 B.C.E., the Olmec people of central Mexico created a vibrant civilization that included intensive agriculture, wide-ranging trade, ceremonial centers, and monumental construction.
a people who invaded central Mexico and were ruled by a military class; had a capital city of Tula; influenced the Maya; introduced the working of gold and silver; spread the worship of their god Quetzalcoatl; destroyed in the CE 1100s
a member of an American Indian people of Yucatan and Belize and Guatemala who had a culture (which reached its peak between AD 300 and 900) characterized by outstanding architecture and pottery and astronomy
group from the north that invaded central Mexico; were first wandering warriors; built their capital city at Tenochtitlan; increased their power until they dominated central Mexico; built causeways, pyramids, marketplaces, and palaces; adopted many customs from other cultures; used chinamapas for farming; militaristic society; known for human sacrifice and dedication to the sun god; ended when conquered by Spanish explorers in the 1500s
a member of the small group of Quechuan people living in the Cuzco valley in Peru who established hegemony over their neighbors to create the great Inca empire that lasted from about 1100 until the Spanish conquest in the early 1530s
First major urban civilization in South America. Capital is de Huantar, was located in the Andes Mountains of Peru. Has 2 distinct ecological zones, the Peruvian Costal Plain and the Andean Foothills.
Civilization of north coast of Peru (200-700 C.E.). An important Andean civilization that built extensive irrigation networks as well as impressive urban centers dominated by brick temples.
Greek culture spread across western Asia and northeastern Africa after the conquests of Alexander the Great. The period ended with the fall of the last major Hellenistic kingdom to Rome, but Greek cultural influence persisted until spread of islam.
a republic in southeastern Europe on the southern part of the Balkan peninsula
an ancient Greek city famous for military power
the capital and largest city of Greece
Member of a group who settled on the greek mainland around 2000 B.C.
the ancient kingdom of Philip II and Alexander the Great in the southeastern Balkans that is now divided among modern Macedonia and Greece and Bulgaria
Alexander the Great
son of Philip II; received military training in Macedonian army and was a student of Aristotle; great leader; conquered much land in Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt, and Mesopotamia; goal was to conquer the known world
the former center of the both the ancient Roman Republic and the Roman empire;capital of present-day Italy
a monotheistic system of beliefs and practices based on the Old Testament and the teachings of Jesus as embodied in the New Testament and emphasizing the role of Jesus as savior
the male head of family or tribe
a body of religious and philosophical beliefs and cultural practices native to India and characterized by a belief in reincarnation and a supreme being of many forms and natures and by the view that opposing theories are aspects of one eternal truth.
the teaching of Buddha that life is permeated with suffering caused by desire, that suffering ceases when desire ceases, and that enlightenment obtained through right conduct and wisdom and meditation releases one from desire and suffering and rebirth
Site of one of the great cities of the Indus Valley civilization of the third millennium B.C.E. It was located on the northwest frontier of the zone of cultivation , and may have been a center for the acquisition of raw materials.
Indus Valley city laid out in a grid pattern. Had a complex irrigation and sewer system, One of the first settlements in India
a republic in the Asian subcontinent in southern Asia
Dynasty established in Indian sub-continent in 4th century B.C.E. following invasion by Alexander the Great
This was an empire in India after the Mauryan Empire. Chandra Gupta II brought this empire to its heights when he defeated the Shakas, the enemy of the Gupta.
the Hindu or Buddhist doctrine that person may be reborn successively into one of five classes of living beings (god or human or animal or hungry ghost or denizen of hell) depending on the person's own actions
a social structure in which classes are determined by heredity
the highest of the four varnas: the priestly or sacerdotal category
in Hinduism, the duties and obligations of each caste
(Hinduism and Buddhism) the effects of a person's actions that determine his destiny in his next incarnation
(Hinduism and Buddhism) the endless cycle of birth and suffering and death and rebirth
following the eightfold path
Four Noble Truths
1) All life is full of suffering, pain, and sorrow. 2) The cause of suffering is nonvirtue, or negative deeds and mindsets such as hated and desire. 3) The only cure for suffering is to overcome nonvirture. 4) The way to overcome nonvirtue is to follow the Eightfold Path
In Buddhism, the basic rules of behavior and belief leading to an end of suffering
a member of the prehistoric people who spoke Proto-Indo European
Indian Ocean Trade
Large amounts of rade happened in this body of water between Arab, Persian, Turkish, Indian, African, Chinese, and Europe merchants. (Particularly in the postclassical period 9600-1450)
farmers and herders who migrated south and spread language and skills-1000BC - 1000AD
The division of society by rank or class.