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Criminal Justice

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214 Billion Dollars
The cost to society of the American Criminal Justice System in dollars
30,000 dollars
The cost to incarcerate an inmate for a year.
Law enforcement, the courts and corrections
The three main components into which the contemporary criminal justice system is divided.
arraignment
This is the stage of the formal criminal justice process at which the defendant enters a plea of guilty or not guilty.
crime control
The justice perspective that demands an efficient system that hands out tough sanctions to those who violate the law?
Consensus View
According to this view of crime, behaviors that become crimes are essentially harmful to majority of citizens and therefore there is general agreement regarding with behaviors need to be controlled
The Uniform Crime Report (UCR)
This annual report is considered the most widely cited source of criminal statistics?
Monitoring the Future
One of the most important sources of self-report data is this study, conducted annually using approximately 2,500 high school seniors.
50
In the landmark study
Delinquency in a Birth Cohort, researchers found that chronic offenders committed approximately ______ percent of all offenses
The South
This region of the United States has the highest property and violent crime rates.
general deterrence
The idea that a potential criminal would fear punishment because they know of someone else who was punished.
psychological
Consideration of IQ and attachment are a part of these types of theories.
strain theory
This theory suggests that some people adopt the goals of society but lack the means to attain them and will therefore seek alternatives, such as crime.
employment
According to Sampson and Laub, marriage and this factor are the two most critical turning points in a criminal career.
absence of effective guardians for protection
The three factors linked to predatory crime rates in routine activities theory are a supply of motivated offenders, a supply of suitable targets and this factor.
substantive law
This type criminal law is primarily concerned with defining crimes and their punishment
stare decisis
The common law latin term defines a system that promotes stability and certainty in legal decisions.
actus reus
The legal term that means guilty act.
The Bill of Rights
The ten amendments to the Constitution that serve as the main source of procedural law.
The fourth amendment
The constitutional amendment that outlaws illegal searches and seizures by police
Sir Robert (Bobbie) Peel
This individual was responsible for their creation of the London Metropolitan Police Department.
Texas
This state formed the first statewide police agency in 1835?
The Broken Windows Theory
Aggressive patrol in New York City during the 1990s aimed at vandalism, panhandling and graffiti, and which has been credited with a reduction in crime, is based on this theory.
Community Policing
Police officers who work in conjunction with citizens, rather than remaining neutral and detached are practicing this model of policing.
Problem Oriented Policing
The tactic of using bait cars to catch car thieves is most closely associated with this model of policing.