54 terms

Mitosis/ Meiosis Quiz Study Guide

all of chapter 8
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Chromatin
granular material visible within the nucleus; consists of DNA tightly coiled around proteins
Sister Chromatid
Sister chromatids are two identical copies of a single chromosome that are connected by a centromere.
Centromere
a specialized condensed region of each chromosome that appears during mitosis where the chromatids are held together to form an X shape
Cell Cycle
series of events that cells go through as they grow and divide
Interphase
period of the cell cycle between cell divisions
Mitotic Phase
stage of the cell cycle when a cell is actively dividing
Mitosis
cell division in which the nucleus divides into nuclei containing the same number of chromosomes
Cytokinesis
organic process consisting of the division of the cytoplasm of a cell following karyokinesis bringing about the separation into two daughter cells
Prophase
first and longest phase of mitosis, during which the chromosomes become visible and the centrioles separate and take up positions on the opposite sides of the nucleus
Metaphase
the second stage of mitosis
Anaphase
the stage of meiosis or mitosis when chromosomes move toward opposite ends of the nuclear spindle
Telophase
the final stage of meiosis when the chromosomes move toward opposite ends of the nuclear spindle
Mitotic Spindle
An assemblage of microtubules and associated proteins that is involved in the movements of chromosomes during mitosis.
Centrosomes
clouds of cytoplasmic material that in animal cells contain centrioles
Cell Plate
the precursor of a new plant cell wall that forms during cell division and divides a cell into two
Cleavage Furrow
The first sign of cleavage in an animal cell; a shallow groove in the cell surface near the old metaphase plate.
Growth Factor
a protein secreted by certain body cells that stimulates other cells to divide
Density-dependent Inhibition
The phenomenon observed in normal animal cells that causes them to stop dividing when they come into contact with one another.
anchorage dependence
The requirement that to divide, a cell must be attached to the substratum.
Cell Cycle control System
A cyclically operating set of molecules in the cell that triggers and coordinates key events in the cell cycle.
Benign Tumor
a tumor that is not cancerous
Malignant Tumor
a tumor that is malignant and tends to spread to other parts of the body
Metastasis
spread of cancer cells beyond their original site in the body
Carcinomas
cancers that arise in the skin, body chamber linings, or glands
Sarcomas
Cancers that arise in the connective tissue cells, including bones, ligaments, and muscles.
Lymphomas
Cancers that arise in organs of the immune system.
Somatic Cell
Any cell in a multicellular organism except a sperm or egg cell.
Homologous Chromosomes
Chromosomes with matching information
Sex Chromosomes
A pair of chromosomes carrying genes that determine whether a person is male or female.
Diploid
(genetics) an organism or cell having two sets of chromosomes or twice the haploid number
Haploid
(genetics) an organism or cell having only one complete set of chromosomes
Gamete
a mature sexual reproductive cell having a single set of unpaired chromosomes
Fertilization
process in sexual reproduction in which male and female reproductive cells join to form a new cell
Zygote
fertilized egg
Meiosis
(genetics) cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms
Prophase I
The first phase of meiosis I. During prophase I the replicated chromosomes condense, homologous chromsomes pair up, crossing over occurs between homologous chromosomes, the spindle is formed, and the nuclear envelope breaks apart into vesicles. Prophase I is the longest phase of meiosis.
Metaphase I
The second phase of meiosis I. During metaphase I the paired homologous chromsomes (tetrads) align at the center of the cell (the metaphase plate).
Anaphase I
The third phase of meiosis I. During anaphase I the rplicated homologous chromosomes are separated (the tetrad is split) and pulled to opposite sides of the cell.
Telophase I
The fourth of meiosis I. Telophase I is identical to mitotic telophase, except that the number of chromosoms is now reduced by half. After this phase the cell is considered to be haploid. Note however, that the chromosomes are still replicated, and the sister chromatids must still be separated during meiosis II.
Prophase II
The first phase of meiosis II. Prophase II is identical to mitotic prophase, except that the number of chromosomes was reduced by half during meiosis I.
Metaphase II
The second phase of meiosis II. Metaphase II is identical to mitotic metaphase, except that the number of chromosomes was reduced by half during meiosis I.
Anaphase II
The third phase of meiosis II. During anaphase II the sister chromatids are finally spearated at their centromeres and puled to opposite sides of teh cell. Note that anaphase II is identical to mitotic anaphase, excep the number of chromosmes was reduced by half during meiosis I.
Telophase II
The fourth and final phase of meiosis II. Telophase II is identical to mitotic telophase, except that the number of chromosomes was reduced by half during meiosis. I.
Crossing Over
the interchange of sections between pairing homologous chromosomes during the prophase of meiosis
Chiasma
a point of overlap of paired chromatids at which fusion and exchange of genetic material occurs during prophase I of meiosis
Tetrad
structure containing 4 chromatids that forms during meiosis
Genetic Recombination
the regrouping of genes in an offspring that results in a genetic makeup that is different from that of the parents
Karyotype
A picture of all the chromosomes in a cell arranged in pairs
Trisomy 21
condition in which an individual has three number 21 chromosomes, resulting in Down syndrome
Nondisjunction
meiosis in which there is a failure of paired homologous chromosomes to separate
Deletion
the loss of a part of DNA from a chromosome
Duplication
change to a chromosome in which part of the chromosome is repeated
Inversion
(genetics) a kind of mutation in which the order of the genes in a section of a chromosome is reversed
Translocation
change to a chromosome in which a fragment of one chromosome attaches to a nonhomologous chromosome
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