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Cognition Vocabulary with Mnemonic Devices and Examples
Terms in this set (98)
It is any system, including machines, animals, and humans, that can encode, store, and retrieve information.
It is a type of cognitive understanding of memory that emphasizes the way information is changed when retrieved, encoded, and stored.
It is the first of the three basic tasks of memory. It includes information being modified in order to fit the preferred memory system's format.
An example would be recalling at 2 pm what you ate for breakfast.
It is the second of the three basic tasks of memory. It involves encoded information/material being retained over time.
An example of this would be if during a lecture, you have a few seconds to find a pattern in the teacher's voice to try to retain the information or it will be lost.
It is the last of the three basic tasks of memory. It includes the recovery and location of material from the memory.
An example of this would be being able to know that encoding comes before storing after reading it a few paragraphs earlier in the textbook.
It is memories that require a specific encoding effort in order to create and establish a memory that can be used/utilized.
An example of this would be the way you are learning psychology from the textbook.
It is a super clear and persistent form of memory that is really rare and is frequently referred to as "photographic memory".
It is the first of the three stages of memory, it holds onto short sensory impressions of stimuli.
An example of this would be watching a sparklet leave a fading trail being your friend as they run around your backyard.
It is the second of the three memory stages and it's capacity is the most limited. It holds onto recently occurring events or experiences without rehearsal and for less than a minute.
An example of this would be when someone says "that rings a bell".
It is also referred to as LTM and is the last of the three states of memory. It has the most capacity and longest duration. It stores material organized by meaning.
An example of this would be the lyrics to your favorite song.
It is a way of organizing parts of material into smaller units with more meaning (chunks). It is a process that frees up space in working memory.
An example of this would be the way phone numbers are separated by a dash (673-5201).
It is a process of working-memory where material is reviewed and/or repeated to make sure it doesn't fade from working memory and there is no active elaboration.
An example of this would be cramming for a test and only using very simple repetition to do so.
It is a process of working memory where material already in the long-term memory is actively related to new information and the new material is also actively reviewed.
An example of this would be taking numbers and turning them into letters to spell out words (1-800-EYE-EXAM).
It is when material is converted mostly when it is senamatic information to working memory sound patterns.
An example of this would be hearing the real sound when reading words like "buzz" or "splash".
It is the explanation for the fact that information/material is better and more thoroughly connected to meaningful long-term memory. It is remembered better and more deeply.
An example of this would be in class, when we remembered the subjects and adjectives better when we were judging the sentences based off of how easy they were to picture verus how difficult they were to pronounce.
It is a division of long-term memory that holds and stores memories for how things are done.
An example of this would be tying your shoelaces.
It is a division off long-term memory that holds and stores explicit information and material and is called fact memory. It also has two subdivisions, semantic memory and episodic memory.
An example of this would be recalling directions to drive to a specific place.
It is a subdivision of declarative memory that holds and stores memories of and for personal "episodes" or events.
An example of this would be memories of your most recent vacation.
It is another subdivision of declarative memory and it stores/holds general and common knowledge like the understanding and meaning of some words and concepts.
This is kind of like an encyclopedia.
It is the changes physically found in the brain that are associated with memory. It is also referred to as the memory trace.
It is being unable to form memories for new material or information.
An example of this would be how H.M. could not move new memories from short-term storage to long-term storage.
It is the process where short-term memories are changed into long-term memories over a time period.
It is being unable to remember or recall material stored prior in the memory.
An example of this would be suffering a blow to the head and then as an effect of that recent memories are lost that had not been through consolidation yet.
It is having a vivid and clear long-term memory of an event that was likely very meaningful or emotional.
An example of this would be the memory of when I broke my foot.
It is a memory you didn't effortfully learn and were not consciously aware of having and they can affect your behaviors.
It is a memory that was purposefully learned with attention and can be recalled with consciousness.
It is the stimuli that is utilized to bring a memory into consciousness or into behaviors.
An example of this would be smelling freshly baked cookies and then having memories of grandma's house.
It is a method used to cue implicit memories by providing cues that relate back to and remind of a memory without being consciously aware of the connection between the cues and the memory.
It is a technique of retrieval used by recreating information priorly presentend.
An example of this would be when you have an essay question on a test, so you need to remember the answer all on your own.
It is another technique of reteival where an individual must be able to identify that a stimulus has been presented before.
An example of this would be a multiple choice question on a test, where you have to be able to pick an answer that has been previously connected to a connection.
Encoding Specificity Principle
It says that certain cues related to the context where a memory was produce encode and store those memories. If they relate better, they will be remembered better.
An example would be seeing your math teacher at the outlets and not being able to recognize them at first.
It is a process that specifically retrieves memories that are equal to or match an individual's mood at that time.
An example would be if you have a very excited mood, that can trigger lots of silly and funny thoughts and memories.
Tip of the Tongue Phenomenon
It is being unable to recall a specific word, but being aware that it is in your memory. It is a frustrating experience to many people.
An example would be knowing that you have the 7 dwarfs names in your memory, but being unable to name them.
It is a long term memory's impermanence and it is based on the thought that the strength in a long-term memory fades and lessens over time.
An example of this would be if I took a quiz on housing and interior design today, I would likely not do as well now as I would have last year when I took the class.
It is a graph that plots the amount of forgetting and remembering of a specific kind of material, usually the curve of forgetting is steep at the beginning, and then it flattens over time.
It is forgetting that happens because of lapses in an individual's attention.
An example would be if you forget your anniversary for something.
It is forgetting that happens when something in memory cannot be retrieved because of an interference.
An example would be a "tip-of-the-tongue" experience.
It is a cause of forgetting where priorly stored information prevents remembering and learning of new information.
An example would be if when moving houses, you look for something in the new house in the place where it would have been in the old house.
It is a cause of forgetting where newly learned information or material prevents access to priorly stored information or material.
An example of this would be when you drive stick shift, then automatic, then when driving stick shift again forget how to use it.
Serial Position Effect
It is a kind of interference related to the order material is presented in. Information in the middle is usually forgotten, while material at the beginning and the end is usually remembered more.
It is an issue in memory that happens when memories are retrieved, but are related to or associated with the wrong person, place, or time.
An example of this would be the person that was accused of rape, because the victim who was raped had watched their interview before they were raped.
It is when a memory is distorted as a result of of an on purpose or an accidental suggestion.
It is a memory being distorted because of misinformation or suggestion.
In memories, events are usually distorted when being recalled so that they fit an individual's expectancies.
We commonly think we are more consistent in our opinions, thoughts, beliefs, and attitudes than we actually are.
An issue in memory where undesired memories are unable to be put out of an individual's mind.
An example of this would be that I have a phobia of throw up, because it is kind of irrelevant and it is constantly on my mind.
They are techniques used to improve memory, usually by making connections between new material and material already in long-term memory.
Method of Loci
It is a mnemonic technique where an individual imagines a list of items being placed in an already known physical place.
An example of this would be if an individual wanted to remember their grocery list of eggs, shampoo, and milk, so they picture their bedroom and having the eggs on the bed, the shampoo in the dresser drawers, and the milk in the lamp.
Language Acquisition Device (LAD)
It is a mental structure in the brain that is organized biologically and it controls the learning and acquiring of a language. It is programmed naturally with some of the basic grammatical rules.
It is like a computer chip and it controls the basic rules of a language.
It is a language's rules, they tell you how to use syntax, words, and morphemes to create understandable sentences.
They are the meaningful parts that make up words. Some of them are full words and others are pieces of grammar that will change a word's meaning.
An example of this would be -ed and -ing. The words walked and talked have different meanings than the words walking and talking.
It is the application of a grammar rule too widely, which then creates forms of words that are incorrect.
An example of this would be if you took the words joked and skipped and assumed this was how to make all words past tense, you may create words like hurted or breaked instead of hurt or broke.
This stage is when children begin using one word at a time in order to display deeper meanings.
This stage is when words comes in pairs and their meanings deepen.
An example of this would be if Alexis kicked the soccer ball and so she said, "Alexis ball".
It is short, basic phrases that lack function words, such as the and those, as well as tenses and plurals but contain verbs and nouns.
An example would be if a basketball hit Evie in the leg and she began to cry, then she may say, "Ball hit Evie cry".
It is representations in the mind of categories of certain things based on experience, such as items and ideas.
It is a mental representation of things such as events and objects that are pulled straight from past, direct experience.
An example of this would be when someone says bird, which then makes you think of a tree, bench, and feeling nervous.
It is the best example representatively of a category of a concept.
An example of this would be what you associate to be a bird. You may think of wings, laying eggs, some fly, and so on.
They are specific concepts that are defined by certain rules.
An example of this would be a square or a math formula.
They are concept levels, organized from general to more specific things. The more general the start is, the more specific concepts there will be.
An example of this would be animals, dogs, dachshunds, dapple dachshunds.
They are seen on the EEg as brain waves as a response to a specific stimulation.
An example of this would be when the word dog is spoken, a specific brain wave pattern would appear.
It is a cluster of knowledge or basic conceptual framework that provides expectations on certain topics, events, situations, subjects, and people in individuals.
An example of this would be the term flap, to a dancer this would be a tap step, to a teacher, they may think of an arts project (where they glue one paper on another and then lift up the top one in order to reveal information).
It is a cluster of knowledge about specific ways one expects things will happen in certain settings.
An example of this would be what you expect will occur at a restaurant.
They are formulas and/or procedures used for problem solving. If done correctly, they will lead to the right answer.
An example of this would be calculating your grade point average.
They are "rules of thumb" and/or strategies used to solve difficult mental tasks. They make these tasks easier and they can be done quicker (short cut), but they do not always promise the right answer.
An example of this would be when someone says, if it doesn't work, double check to be sure it is plugged in.
It is an individual's tendency to respond to an issue that is new in the same way they did for a prior problem.
It is being unable to think of another way to use an object that is usually associated with another purpose. It is a form of mental set.
An example of this would be when you need to screw something in and go looking for a screwdriver, when a dime would have worked equally well.
It is the tendency for people to believe they could have predicted an outcome in advance. It is to "second guess".
An example of this would be someone saying, I knew this TBT was going to be individual. Another example would be someone saying, I knew the blue team would lose.
It is a faulty heuristic that occurs because of basing an estimate on a quantity or amount that is totally unrelated.
An example of this would be the problem 1 x 2 x 3 x 4 x 5 x 6 x 7 x 8 =, most people would estimate this answer is lower than it really is. If asked, 8 x 7 x 6 x 5 x 4 x 3 x 2 x 1 =, people would estimate the answer is higher than it really is.
It is a strategy that is faulty heuristic and it is based on the presumption that once a person or event is categorized, that all people or events with similar traits are also categorized the same way.
An example of this would be the term that blonde people are not smart.
It is a faulty heuristic strategy that estimates probabilities based on material or information that can be made available/recalled from personal experience.
An example of this would be watching criminal minds, so then more thoughts surround criminal minds, and then people think they are more likely to be murdered compared to others.
It is a mental process that produces responses that are novel and can contribute to a problem being solved.
They are potentialities that are innate.
An example of this would be that Einstein was good at spacial relationships and logic.
It is the amount of time that is saved when an individual is relearning material they have already previously learned.
An example of how to do this would be to measure the amount of time it takes to learn something, then take time to forget what was learned, then gather the person again and see how long it takes them to remember again, usually it takes less time.
It is sensory memory for visual stimuli that only lasts for a couple tenths of a second. It does not last much longer than blinking your eyes.
Icons - Emojis you look at - Sight and Visual
It is sensory memory of auditory stimuli that only lasts for around 3 to 4 seconds (because it is still bouncing around in the ear and traveling), even if your attentions is directed elsewhere.
Echo - Sound
An example of this would be when the teacher asks a student that was just talking what they were saying and they can instantly repeat exactly what they were saying.
It is the opposite of massed rehearsal or practice (cramming), it says that one you master something, you should put it away for a bit and then practice it again later.
If you are running with a bucket of water on your head (cramming), you can do it faster but by the end you won't have any water (memories), but if you walk you will keep more of the water (memories), even though it will take more time.
It is enhanced memory or better memory after retrieving rather than just rereading information.
It makes recalling things more recallable.
It is encoding on a very basic level that is based on the appearance or the structure of specific words.
An example of this would be just flipping through your quizlet and just skimming over it.
It is encoding semantically based on word's specific meanings. Usually it is best to summarize things in your own words or to make information personally relate to you. It gives the best retention out of the other choices.
An example of this would be if I were trying to remember the hallucinogen drugs Ecstasy, LSD, and Marijuana. I might think of a time I saw an elm tree and say I hallucinated it so I could relate it back to me to remember.
It is an area in the brain that store material about procedural memories and skills , it gets input from the cerebral cortex but sends the material outside of conscious awareness (not to a cortex). It is involved in motor movement. It is like 5 parts in the brain put together, it is a general area, and it is about in the dead center of the brain. It deals with habits you do thousands of times.
It is like a one lane highway, so information and material can go into it from the cerebral cortex but it cannot be sent out, that's why it is so tricky to explain motor skills.
It is an increase in a cell's firing potential after a rapid and brief stimulation of some sort. It is basically neurons that wire together, fire together by creating new dendrites. It is the neural basis for memory and learning and after some time neurons need less prompting to release their neurotransmitters.
If you walk in the sand in the same line over and over again, you would eventually become buried in the sand.
It is the opposite of interference and it says that priorly learned material helps in being able to retrieve newly learned material.
An example would be that learning Latin makes it easier to learn French in the future.
It is false memory of when, where, or how information was imagined or learned. It happens outside of conscious awareness.
It is cues from present situations that unconsciously trigger the retrieval of a previous experience.
An example of this would be when I was in my hip-hop class the teacher played a song that we were going to learn a combination to and I felt this sense we had done it before. It turned out that we had done a routine to it like 5 or 6 years ago.
They are grammar rules for making and deriving meaning from sounds.
An example of this would be he wound the bandage around the wound.
It is rules for combining words into sentences that make grammatical sense.
An example of this would be James, while John had had "had", had had "had had"; "had had" had had a better effect on the teacher.
It is in language development and it says that if children are not exposed to any language by the age of 7 they will never be able to master the use of a language. It is a window of time for language development and that window is slowly closing and you need to be exposed to language before that window closes. By the age of 6 or 7 the window starts to close and by puberty it is closed forever and it is a window around time.
An example would be if you learned to speak spanish as an adult, you will never master the grammar of the language or the correct accent.
It says language controls the way we interpret and think about the world around us. It isn't completely true, like you can think of a color that you don't have a name for but it says that if there isn't a word for something you also can't think about it. It says language determines thought and it controls the way you think.
An example of this would be if there wasn't a word for something, you would be unable to think about it.
He was an anthropologist that lived with the hopi tribe and found they did not have a past tense for verbs. He said language and thinking work together and that if there are not words for something then we have difficulty trying to think about it. He dealt with linguistic determinism.
It is a kind of thinking and it is the ability to consider lots of different choices and to be able to think in novel ways. It is the ability to think and create many different solutions and possible ideas to solve problems.
Diverging - Getting farther apart - It is getting farther apart and getting more ideas and options for things
It is narrowing the available solutions to problems in order to pick the best option. It is taking a bunch of facts and putting them all together in order to come up with one correct answer.
All of the options come together to converge to one point (the right answer).
Trial and Error
It is a problem solving strategy that is trying every possible solution until an answer is found. You are guaranteed to find a solution and it is very useful if you know nothing, but it may take a long time and many years and you may never figure it out before you die.
An example would X + 4 = 14, you may say okay if X is 1 would I get 14, no I get 5. If I do -1 would I get 14, no I would get 3. If I do 10 would I get 14, yes.
It is a problem solving strategy where there is a sudden realization of the solution to a problem. It is good because you get the solution, but it is bad because you can't always count on it and figure it out. You don't know when it is coming and it is not based on strategy, nor is it reliable.
An example of this would be when we were doing the matchstick activity and I just randomly realized I could make the roman numeral 6 with the matchsticks.
It is the way an issue or problem is presented.
An example of this would be saying something is 75% lean beef or saying something is 25% fat beef.
It is when people with a low ability in a certain skill overestimate their abilities. It says you don't know what you don't know.
An example of this would be politics without first consulting with experts.
It says that individuals underestimate the time that it will take them to perform a specific task.
Natural Language Mediators
They are words that are associated with brand new information and material in order to be remembered.
An example of this would be if you were going to the store and needed to get cookies, lemonade, and spinach you might think of a story of two little kids selling lemonade at a little lemonade stand and they both have spinach in their teeth but you don't want to tell them, so you give them cookies in hopes that somehow the cookie will get rid of the spinach in their teeth.
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