Neurodegenerative=alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Down's syndrome
Vascular=stroke, subarchnoid hemorrhage
Toxic, metabolic=alcoholism, vitamin B deficiency, hypothyroidism
Immune/infectious=AIDS, meningitis, SLE, encephalitis, MS
Systemic=hepatic encephalopathy, uremic encephalopathy
Trauma/tumors=head injury, primary or metastatic tumors
Drugs=tranquilizers, anticholinergics, opiods,illegal (herion, cocaine)
Reorientation and behavioral interventions
Create a safe and quiet environment.
Pay attention to environmental stimuli
Clocks, calendars, noise, and light levels
**Patient groups at risk include those with neurologic disorders (e.g., stroke, dementia, CNS infection, Parkinson's disease), sensory impairment, and advanced age. If the patient uses eyeglasses or a hearing aid, these should be made readily available because sensory deprivation can precipitate delirium.
Avoid the use of restraints.