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Possible Essay Topics

Muslim & Christians, Eur. Expansion Reasons/Consequences, Diaz --> De Gama, Columbus & Magellan, Cortes + Aztecs, Pizarro + Incans, Reasons Incas/Aztecs Fell, Columbian Exchange, Viceroyalties, Encomienda System, Indigenous Population Decline, Labor Shortage Problem + Solutions, Africans' Role in Slave Trade, Diff. Reactions of China vs Japan to Westerners, European Inflation

3 Ways of Cultural Contact

Trade, war, immigration


the belief that inanimate objects and natural phenomenon posses a soul
-god is in everything
-everything sacred


the biggest commercial entrepot on Indian Ocean

bride wealth

custom whereby at marriage the groom paid the bride or her family a sum of money that remained under her control

Muslim & Chr competition

-struggle for converts

St. Francis Xavier

first Jesuit to Malacca

S.E. Asians view of Chr&Mus

Wealthy, powerful individuals.
Associated powerfulness & wealthiness with religion

Chr & Mus conversion of SE Asians

They would translate Scriptures and documents for them
To convert the natives would have to memorize sacred texts & learn sacred prayers and customs

Chr. specific aspects of SE Asian conversion

They relied on celibate clergy & baptism to build community

Mus. specific aspects of SE Asian conversion

Assimilation through marriage & merging of cultures
-didnt have iconoclastic ideas like Chr
-major obstacle was getting rid of pork in diet
-most people muslim

Developments that Stimulated Market for SE Asian Goods

1) collapse of silk road --> ^ traffic on Indian Ocean
2) Chinese expansion --> ^ pop of china & ^demand
3) 7 Voyages of Zheng He launched "age of commerce"

Reasons for European Expansion

--Lack of opportunities at home & escape from poverty
--European demand for luxury goods & for profit
--The urge to explore + "curiosity about physical universe"
--used excuse of religion


ships with cannons
-trade was a war game
-slower than galley but held more cargo
-small, light

Consequences of Eur. Expansion

-No Native Americans
-South America = Catholic

Navigators of Eur. Expansion

•Henry the Navigator
-prince of Portugal, supported seafare
-Rounded Cape of Good Hope, had to turn back
-showed that there was land past the western outcropping of Africa
•de Gama
-Using Diaz's knowledge, sailed around Africa and up to India
-showed seaborne trade possible, profitable
-'Discovered' New World
-proposed conquering, enslaving peoples of New World
-Voyaged from Spain to Asia
-showed inter-connectedness of world's oceans
-conqueror of the Aztecs/Mexico
-"I have come to win gold..."
-conqueror of Incas

Life at sea

Dangerous, crowded, unsafe, disease-ridden

Fernandez de Oviedo

wrote "General History of the Indies"


long, narrow boats powered by slaves
-couldn't withstand tough winds
-took a lot of man power
-develop caravel

Ptolemy's Geography

synthesized geographical knowledge of classical world
-contains crucial errors, missing the Americas


instrument invented by Greeks used to determine the position of the sun

Objectives of Portuguese Foreign Policy

a) aristocratic desires for marital glory
b) Chr.ize Muslims
c) quest for gold, slaves, routes

Henry the Navigator

prince of Portugal, supported seafare

Portugese establish plantations on Africa


Bartholomew Diaz

Portuguese navigator who rounded Cape of Good Hope (southern tip), had to turn back bc of storm and mutiny
-discovered that there was land past the western outcropping of Africa

Vasco de Gama

Portuguese navigator who sailed around the cape and up the African coast to India
-returned with spices and cloths
-proved trade possible
-journey brought 6000% profit

Challenges for Portuguese Journey to India

Competition with Muslim ships
-trade was a war game

Christopher Columbus

-From Spain
-devout Chr who wanted to spread Chr.ity
-knowledgable about sea
-objective of first voyage: find trading route to Asia

Columbus's First Voyage

Landed in Bahamas, thought it was island off of Japan
-saw natives to be easy converts & good slaves
-Called it "San Salvador"
-Returned to Spain with plot of conquering Hispanola
--->return to spain again


From Spain to Asia
-prove interconnectedness of world's oceans
-showed seaborne commerce was possible

Hernardo Cortes

-From Spain
-conqueror of Mexico
-"I have come to win gold, not plow the fields like a peasant"
-voyages made possible by growth of govt power

Went from Hispanola to Mexico
-for gold
-traveled to Technotitlan
-with 600 men

Reasons Aztecs/Incas fell

-Inca's and Aztecs misinterpreted intentions
-no defense/time to strategize
-not everyone supporting govt anyway
-lower range of lethality (bows & arrows, not guns)
--had to fight closer to enemy
-weaker immune system
-harvests, internal strife, odd natural phenomenon (comet, temples destroyed)
-Aztecs believed Spanish were returning god Quetzalcoatl
-Incas believed Spanish were returning god Verocha

Reasons Spanish Didn't fall

-ready for fighting
-five year civil war ended on day Pizarro arrived
-everyone tired of fighting

internal problems: captured cities tired of paying tribute

Montezuma II

Ruler of Technotitlan
-welcomed Cortes warmly
-taken hostage by Cortes


Spanish conquistador
-landed in Peru (Inca) on day Atahualpha won civil war
-Atahualpa unarmed, expected warm arrival
-captured Atah & collected huge ransom, killed anyway


The four administrative subunits of the New World created by the Spanish crown
-existed mainly for financial gain
-lots of gold & silver mining

Problems with Viceroyalties

-distance between Madrid and New World
--less communication
-administrative control
--need to ensure viceroys' loyalty
-not much check & balance
--a little from audiencia


The imperial governor of a viceroyalty


The board of 12-15 judges serving as an advisory council & the highest judicial body presided over by the viceroy


A Spanish tax in the new world claiming one-fifth of all mined precious metals


local officials who held judicial and military power

The Columbian Exchange

The transfer of animals, plants, diseases, and ideas between the Old World and New World

Encomienda System

The Spanish system whereby the crown granted the conquerors the right to employ groups of Amerindians in a town or area
-disguised form of slavery
-partly abolished by Charles V from pressure by Jesuits

Indigenous Population Decline

-Encomienda System = slavery
--not used to working conditions
-No resistance to Old World diseases
-Murdered by Spanish

New World Labor Shortage

-Native Americans first exploited
--doesn't work well b/c they all died
---Encomienda System
---Virgin Soil Epidemic (unknown diseases)
---Loss of will to live
Import african slaves for labor

Slave Info

POW's, in debt, inherited slavery
-diseases + epidemics --> ↓ agricultural workers --> ↑ buying slaves
-were mostly white
-a lot needed for sugar


-Imported from New World to Old World
-quickly became luxury
-became primary crop export
-tons of slaves needed for plantations

Slave Trade

-Thousands transported annually
-Total of 12 million African slaves brought over
-20% of slaves died on voyages
--> some traders improved conditions
-poor quality food & water, crowding, low sanitation
-crowding increases capacity, profit
-"we have only the fittest bc they survived"

Middle Passage

The term for the voyage between Africa and the New World

Africans' Role in Slave Trade

Africans sold Africans because:
-From their POV, the people they're selling aren't their own
--high diversity of cultures within Africa (no ethnic solidarity)

Portuguese (Global Trade Networks)

Main Water: Asian Waters
-Control resulted from naval power & shipborne artillery
-first world traders
-Portuguese was language of maritime trade

Spanish (Global Trade Networks)

Main Water: Pacific Ocean
-Seaborne empire centered in Manila in Philippines
--'Bridge' between Spanish America and Asian trade
-Conquered Philippines too

Dutch (Global Trade Networks)

Main Water: Indonesian Waters
-Empire built on spices
--profits → est. Dutch East India Company
---intention of capturing spice trade from Portuguese
-wanted direct access to Indonesian sources of spices
-agreements + seizures + outright war → gain control of western access to Indonesia
-monopoly on spice trade

Japan (Global Trade Networks)

↓ violence + unification + dev. of marketing networks → increase in orders → govt expand navy, ↑ mine production

-process stopped when govt closed island to trade
-death penalty for merchants travelling abroad

China (Global Trade Networks)

-Chinese silk sold by Portuguese
--huge demand

One-way trade

The unequal commercial relationship between different areas of the globe
-Gold flowing from Europe to Asia, food & expendables flowing from Asia to Europe

The power of action

The potential to act based on the amount of money one has to spend

Why China Could Have Expanded

-largest geographical power in Asia
-same practical experience as Europe
-population of 65 million, 10x more than Spain
-More than double wealth of Spain + France combined

Why China Didn't Expand

-Confucian teachings hostile to trade & foreign commerce
-Merchants were lowest class
-Thought trade led to competition, which leads to social mobility and change which causes disorder
--BUT: China had acquired commercial dominance of Luzon, in Philippines, so hostility to trade didn't expand
*∗*∗*∗Internal & Domestic Difficulties→Didn't Expand
-Mongol pressure from North border --> domestic security
-Emperor Zhengtang saw that overseas expansion brought little gain
--wanted to conserve resources for army
--cancelled exploration
-China losing domestic control: hard to rule many different peoples

Matteo de Ricci

Jesuit who went to China
-met with emperor and impressed him
-emperor didnt want to convert

Chinese Problems with Christianity

-didn't accept total commitment
-didn't accept that there was only one path to heaven
-saw Jesus as state criminal
-in Chr, couldn't worship ancestors

Chinese Reactions to Chr.

-expelled missionaries
-forbade Chr.ity

Japanese Reactions to Chr.

-expelled Chr., Spanish, Portuguese
-closed Japan to foreign influence
-Dutch supported Japan in getting rid of Chr & Portuguese (Protestant wanted to rid Chr, businessmen ridded competition)
-crucified survivors of rebellion
--very public, sets example
-Island of Deshima (2000 sq ft) is where 1 Dutch ship annually can trade with Japanese

Japanese Problems with Chr.

-thought that Chr.ity and allegiance to govt were mutually exclusive
-divided allegiance --> invasion (knew example of Philippines)
-thought it was inferior to their superior culture


to convert someone to a faith, belief, or cause

What Caused Eur. Inflation

-can't be suspected cause (flood of silver)
--because peak of silver exports doesn't match up with peak of inflation
-suspected to be substantial population growth
--because when the population pressure declined, prices stabilized

The Effects of Eur. Inflation

-food & goods prices rose
-Strained gov't budgets
--King had to repudiate state budget
--undermined confidence in gov't

Eur. Inflation's Effect on Classes

Continental Nobles
-hurt because they live on a fixed income (money was worth less)
Middle Class
-helped because most live in debt (debt had less value)
-hurt worst of all because of increasing food prices

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