Ronald Takaki, Details of 3 key strikes
1906 Waipahu Plantation Strike - Japanese Struck, manager E K Bull called in police who acted as private army. He threatened to evict workers. Eventually gave concessions. Lesson: Undescored importance of collective labor strike.
1909 Japanese Strike- Japanese Struck over Portuguese getting paid more. Struck for 4 months. 7000 workers on Oahu, thousands others supporting with money/food. Strike broken when plantation hired other groups + imported filipinos. Eventually wages were leveled.
Lesson: Reflected new consciousness among Japanese - sojourners to settlers, Japanese to Japanese Americans. Was ethnically based because 70% of workers were Japanese at the time.
1920 Strike - 8300 Filipino and Japanese struck (77% of all workers). Demanded higher wages, insurance, 8hour workday. Plantation owners hired Koreans Hawaiians Portuguese to work, evicted strikers. Strike called off.
Lesson: 1st major multi-ethnic strike. Plans for non-ethnic unions were made