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Ronald Takaki, "Raising Cane" Needed second generation of workers, preferred married men
Jack Chen, "The Chinese of America" With their long queues and loose suits Chinese were highly visible
Bill Ong HIng, "The Undesirable Asian" The arguments in support of the bill (immigration act of 1924) stressed the racial superiority of anglo-saxons, that immigrants led to lower wages, and the unassimiability of foreigners
Page Act of 1875
Sucheng Chan, "Exclusion of Chinese Women" The main impact of the law was not prostitutes but rather other groups of chinese women. (Was first immigration bill, aimed at asian laborers, prostitutes, and criminals)
1852 Foreign Miner's Tax
Cindy Cheng, Lec (9/8/11). Targeted the chinese, became a major source of revenue for the state govt (58 million 1850-70). (Required foreigners to pay $3 a month to mine, targeted at chinese)
Sucheng Chan, "Exclusion of Chinese Women" Chinese culture dictated wives needed to stay and help in-laws instead of coming to US with husband. (Practice of providing needs without giving rights/responsibilities)
Divide and Rule
Ronald Takaki, "Raising Cane" They utilized a multi-tiered pay system, cultivated national consciousness and appealed to race pride (Used on plantations to keep workers in line)
Cindy Cheng, Lec (9/8/11). Belief that white man must conquer and civilize the others, god given right, led to takeover of SW USA and the policies there
Yuji Ichioka, "Struggle Against Exclusion" They said japanese immigrants were like adopted children, who had hard challenges to overcome. Term means highly visible but limited acculturation
Sucheng Chan, "Exclusion of Chinese Women" The reports created 'slots' for young men who desperately wanted to come to the US
Cindy Cheng, Lec (10/11/11). Direct result of anti-chinese legislation - they were singled out for examination and detention, humiliating medical exams and long interrogations
1924 Immigration Act
Sucheng Chan, "Exclusion of Chinese Women" The 1924 law had a secondary affect - it closed off all immigration from Asia. Was aimed at restricting SE European immigrants. Max allowed was 2% of current population
Bill Ong Hing, 3 groups needing control for "Americanness" and example legislation
1- Paupers, poor people. USA is hard workers.
2-Blacks. Again, poverty. Also fear of slave revolt.
3-Political Views. Fears of foreign influence, especially French but also germans "germanizing" USA instead of anglifying it.
Ex- Alien and Sedition Acts - Allowed US to deport aliens "dangers to the US", aliens of an enemy power
Jack Chen, 3 major trades of early chinese immigrants
1- mining for gold. Work was hard, wages low, lots of racism. Was preferred trade until the mines dried up
2-Restaurants. They were always in demand with their low prices for all-you-can-eat
3-Domestic Servants. Regarded highly as cooks and cleaners. Recieved good wages. Doted on children of hosts
Ronald Takaki, Details of 3 key strikes
1906 Waipahu Plantation Strike - Japanese Struck, manager E K Bull called in police who acted as private army. He threatened to evict workers. Eventually gave concessions. Lesson: Undescored importance of collective labor strike.
1909 Japanese Strike- Japanese Struck over Portuguese getting paid more. Struck for 4 months. 7000 workers on Oahu, thousands others supporting with money/food. Strike broken when plantation hired other groups + imported filipinos. Eventually wages were leveled.
Lesson: Reflected new consciousness among Japanese - sojourners to settlers, Japanese to Japanese Americans. Was ethnically based because 70% of workers were Japanese at the time.
1920 Strike - 8300 Filipino and Japanese struck (77% of all workers). Demanded higher wages, insurance, 8hour workday. Plantation owners hired Koreans Hawaiians Portuguese to work, evicted strikers. Strike called off.
Lesson: 1st major multi-ethnic strike. Plans for non-ethnic unions were made
Evelyn Nakano Glenn, Domestic service as Bridging or Ghettoizing occupation
Ghettoizing: It traps and disadvantages those who enter. The isolation, long hours, adn physicality of the work removes workers from normal social relations and prevented them from maintaining/developing alternate skills. Until recently Japanese denied resources/connections needed for other fields.
Bridging: Fosters acculturation and social mobility of immigrants. Through this Issei acquired knowledge of American housekeeping techniques, western family relations, and some english. Provided contact with members of dominant culture.
Sucheng Chan, What factor led to low Chinese Women count? Discuss two groups affected
Wives of Chinese Laborers: Both Ah Quan and Ah Moy cases show that no woman married to chinese laborer could enter unless she could prove prior residence and obtained same kind of certificate as husband.
Daughters of US Citizens: Children of native-born FATHERS were US citizens. Because of Paper Daughters they were questioned on their house, family, etc thoroughly.
Jack Chen, how did economic context, labor unions, and national politics lead to federal policy excluding chinese laborers in 1882?
Economy- Chinese immigration was highest as unemployment and economic distress were at high point. The mines began to run out of gold. Stock market crashed. Many lost a lot in the stocks and looked towards the most visible minority to blame.
Labor Unions-Wanted higher wages, the chinese taking lower ones prevented that from happening. "Stealing" jobs from whites.
National Politics- Many powerful groups wanted chinese threat to be more pressing than corruption, capitalists, land monopolists. Republican party led teh charge, along with Manifest Destiny.
Erika Lee, Three ways enforcement of chinese exclusion affected immigration regulations
1-the requirement of an ID with name, age, residence
2-Definition of Illegal Immigration as a criminal offense, which led to establishment of deportation laws.
3-Solidified the view that Americans were white, and all Europeans could become citizens but not asians.
Erika Lee, Three ways that scrutiny was raised on Chinese Women
1-The widely held belief that all chinese women were prostitutes
2-They derived the right to enter the country thru their husband/father, so had to depend on them to decide to immigrate or not
3-Chinese customs - wives thru arranged marriages were not "true" wives in eyes of white officials.
Eithne Luibheid, three reasons Exclusionists targeted chinese women
1- they were a threat to white culture in general, subverting values
2-they were carriers of dangerous diseases, again threat to whites
3-All chinese women seen as prostitutes so singling them out would limit all of them from entering
Bill Ong Hing, three acts contributing to asians being undesireable
1-Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882. Excluded laborers for 10 years, closed door for chinese
2-Greary Act of 1892. Demanded registration of all chinese laborers and extended exclusion laws. Also denied bail to chinese in habeas corpus and those subject to deportation could face a year of hard labor
3-immigration act of 1924. Mainly targeted Japanese who were beginning to show military might.
Yuji Ichioka, three ways Japanese struggled against exclusion
1-Struggeld to adapt to american culture as exclusionists were claiming they could not (Gaimenteki Doka)
2-Naturalizatoion - The Takao Ozawa case of 1922 was eventually rejected but made people look at the issue of naturalization
3-The CA Alien Land Law. Targeted Japanese farmers as they were aliens. Struggled to gain Naturalization. Ended up circumventing the law by working for whites or having whites own the land
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