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Theories of personality exam # 2
Terms in this set (94)
Biographical Backgrounds- Anna
- Daughter of sig freud
-He father's intellectual heir; became eminent psychoanalyst and international authority in her own right
2. She enlarged the application of psychoanalysis to new areas such as The study of children and the exploration of the ego
----- Became an advocate for children and adolescents, insisting that their best interests need to be kept in the forefront
3. war has devasting effect on young children
Anna Freud's therapy: stressed protective, supportive, and educational attutudes.
--In which Suggested how the classical features of adult psychoanalysis could be used with children four years old and upward, but the analysis could not be conducted like the analysis of adult. Classical techniques such as free association,, the interpretation of dreams and analysis of the transference had to be changed to correspond with the child's level of maturity.
Neurotic symptoms do not have the same meaning in the life of a child that they have in the life of an adult
She distinguished between less serious. manifestations of childhood distress, such as emotional problems of childhood that would be outgrown, and more serious disorders that threatens to fixate a child at a particular stage of development and thus jeopardize optimal personality growth
Was developed for infants, children, adolescents, and adults. The therapists uses the profile to organize and integrate the data that he or she acquires during a diagnostic assessment . The profile is intended to yield a complete picture of the various functioning of the patient's personality
complete set of different symptoms that cluster together to form a profile
o specifically for children experiencing war or destruction or broken homes
-War have a devastating effect on children
Anne used developmental line:
to refer to a series of id-ego interactions in which children decrease their dependence on external controls and increase ego mastery of themselves and their world.
o talk about how children can progress from having external influences on personality
o learn how to sacrifice and deal well with others
o ego developing a mastery
The 6 developmental lines stress the ego's ability to cope with various internal environmental and interpersonal situations, based on her father's psychosexual development.
---------As children grow, they progress from
-----1. Dependency of psychosexual development
-----2. Sucking to rational eating
---3. Wetting and soiling to bladder and bowel control
--4. Irresponsibility to responsibility in body management
--5. Play to work
6. Egocentricity to companionship
What Anne's Perspective of Adolescence and Free Association?
• concept of normality in adolescence
o not just a period where every kid as rebellious
o there shouldn't be a negative judgment on certain behaviors
• Free association doesn't work for kids
o Developed play therapy and for the therapist to develop a could report with the child
o Positive transference to help the child to not over indulge
Adolescence is a period of disharmony but suggesting that the crisis it entails is normative and functional
--- the ego must become aware of the defenses that it is using to prevent the material from remerging into consciousness. The ego's defenses may be inferred from observable behavior
1. Describe the contributions that Anna Freud made to psychoanalysis
Anna Freud emphasized the role of the ego, giving it a greater degree of autonomy. She also entended the interest of psychoanalysois to the study of child
• gave ego greater autonomy
• emphasized the role of the ego
• it wasn't constantly trying to deal with conflict
• grew psychoanalysis for children
o change in technique: diagnostic profile
Erik Erikson (1902-1994) Biography
- Born in Frankfurt, Germany
- Parent's concealed fact that Erik's father was not his biological father
He did not know his biological father and adopted his stepdad's last name. This experience made him develop the loving deceit and identity crisis. He struggled with psychological and biological problems=
• identity crisis
o to overcome he gave himself his own last name
o looked Danish so outcasted by Jew
o outcasted by Danish because of Jewish upbringing
-Worked with Anna Freud as a child analyst
- Moved to US in 1933
- Worked in various teaching positions until 1960 when Harvard offered him a professor ship
-Established a key figure in psychoanalysis, publishing articles that enabled him to make a unique e contribution to our understanding of child development
He study child-rearing methods among the Siouz in South Dakota. He observed how childhood methods are shaped by society and its customs
2. Identify four ways in which Erikson extended Sigmund Freud's Psychoanalytic theory
1. He increased our understanding of the ego, showing how it is a creative problem solver that emerges out of the genetic, cultural, and historical contexts of each individual
2. He elaborated on Freud's stages of developments, making explicit social dimension that was implied in Freud's theory but never clearly stated (- Psychosocial stages of development--goes from infancy to old age)
3. He extended the concept of development to include the entire life span, from infancy to old age
4. He explored the impact of culture, society, and history on the development of personality and illustrated this in psychohistorical studies of famous people
3. Explain how Erikson's theory enlarged our understanding of the ego
-Erikson emphasized on
1. He focused adaptive qualities and constructive values of the ego
2. He also described the social and historical forces that influence the ego's strengths and weaknesses of young children ( Focus more on how one might strength the ego of young children)
3. He suggested that ego development reaches a climax ( highest or most intense point) during adolescence.
4. The ego has an overall unifying purpose that leads to constant behavior and conduct. The ego has the positive role of maintaining effective performance.
5. Its defenses are adaptive as well as maladaptive
6.. He elaborated on its adaptive capacities,
1. to deal with stress
2. to resolve conflict
3. to recuperate, and
4. to contribute to identity formation.
8. He defined the ego as a strong postive force: an organizing capacity of the individual that has the strength to reconcile discontinuities and ambiguities.
--At each stages the ego develops certain strengths or basic virtues that enable it to move forward. These ego strengths lay the foundation for a set of ethical rules based on ideals that we strive achieve.
Centers on an emotional polarity or conflict that children encounter at certain critical periods. New environment demands the positive and negative emotional components into the development of personality, but if the conflict is resolved satisfactorily, the positive component is reflected to a higher degree
4. Discuss the general characteristics of Erikson's psychosocial stages of development
In Freud's stages children are doing more than coming to terms with their own sexuality. For Erikson, children are trying to understand and relate to the world and to others.
-Erikson's psychosocial stages are based Freud's work. Each of Erikson's stages was established around an emotional conflict that people encounter at certain critical periods. New envvionmental demands introject positive and negative emotional components into the development of personality. Both emotinonal components are to some extent incorporated into the emerging person, but if the conflict is resolved good, the postive component is reflected to a higher degree. If the conflict persists or is not adequately resolved, the negative component predominates.
--Erikson's first four stages correspond to Freud's psychosexual stages ( oral, through latency). He then subdivided the genital stage into 4 phases that represent growth and development throughout maturity
- Develop through a predetermined unfolding of our personalities in 8 stages
- Progress is in part determined by our success, or lack of success, in all the previous stages
- each stage provides the opportunity for the personality to develop well
• Each stage is cumulative: positive effects of stages carries over into next stage
o same goes for negative effects
- Each stage has an optimal time period to complete goals/tasks
Maladjustment is worse than Maladaptive b/c it has too little of pos and too much neg
Erikson's stages were epigenetic , progressing in a cumulative fashion. One stage develops on top of another in a sequential and hierarchical pattern. At each successive level the human personality becomes more complex. Erikson stressed the prospective features of the life cycle, and the amended the logic of psychoanalysis so that early events are seen in terms of their contributions to later development but also as themselves directed by potentials that do not flow until later. Erikson's psychosocial stages do not occur within a strict chronological framework. Each aspect of psychosocial development has a critical period of readiness during which if it does not flourish, it is likely to flounder. The stages progress in a cumulative rather than a linear fashion. The behavior of one stage do not disappear with the successive stage.
--Each of the 8 stages entails its own life crisis: a crucial period in which the individual cannot avoid a decisive turn one way or the other.
Each stage also provided new opportunities for a basic ego strength, or virtue, to grow. These psychosical gains result from the ego's successful adaptation to its environment and must be nurtured and reaffirmed continuously
Type of Erikson's psychosocial stages
1. Trust Versus Mistrust: Hope (oral stage)
2. Autonomy versus shame and Doubt: Will ( Anal)
3.Initiative versus guilt: purpose ( Phallic)
4. Industry versus inferiority: Competence (Lateny)
5. Ego identity versus Roles confusion: fidelity ( Gentical)
---1. Role confusion
---2. Intimacy Versus Isolation: Love
--3. Generativity: Versus Stagnation: Care
--4. EGo Integrity Versus Despair: Wisdom
Trust vs. Mistrust
=oral stage. ( sensory and kinesthetic one). You learn whether not you can trust the world. Basic trust is a correlation between one's needs and one's world. If infants receive unreliable, or rejecting care, they will perceive their world as indifferent or hostile, and they will develop a higher degree of mistrust. This crisis is not permanently resolved during the first year or two of life, but a foundation is laid that influences the next stage of development.
--Balance of trust and mistrust leads to the development of the ego strength=virtue= hope:
Hope = A basic human virtue without which we are unable to survive. Hope represents a persistent conviction that our wishes can be satisfied in spite of disappointment and failures. Hope is the base for faith, reflected in mature commitments.
Maladaptation: (too much trust) No mistrust: Sensory distortion or sensory maladaptation
Overly trusting, gullible, Pollyanna
maladjustment: To little trust; to much mistrust
• Maladjustment: (too little trust) Too must mistrust: withdrawal
o Depression, paranoia, possible psychosis
Autonomy vs. shame and Doubt
2-3 years old ( toddler)
The primary emotional duality is that of control over the body and bodily activities as opposed to a tendency for shame or doubt. Just when a child learns to trust his mother and to trust the world, he must become self-willed and must take chances with his trust in order to see that he is trustworthy.
The struggle of autonomy is limited sessions on the toilet and extends to many other areas of life as the ego begins to establish psychosocial independences
EX: The negativism of the two-year old whose favorite word is no is evidence of the child's struggle attempt at autonomy. Cultures have different what cultivate or breaking the child's will, either reinforcing or rejecting the tentative explorations of the child. Doubts about their ability for self-control may give children feelings of inadequacy or shame.
Will= an unbroken determination to exercise freedom of choice and self-restraint and forms the basis for our subsequent acceptance of social laws
developing psychosocial independence and coordination (physically and verbally)
• Maladaptation: Too much autonomy (no shame) : impulsivity
o Jump into things without proper consideration of abilities
• Maladjustment: Too little Autonomy (too much shame): compulsiveness
o Entire being rides on everything they do
Initiative v.s guilt
when kids develop a mastery of skills and tasks and engage in activities that are more goal oriented. Initiating activities on their own as a goal.
• purpose courage
• Maladaptive: too much initiative and too little guilt: ruthlessness
o Don't care who they have to step on to achieve goals
o Goals are everything
o Guilty feelings are for the weak
o Extreme ruthlessness = sociopath
• Maladjustment: too much guilt: inhabitation
o "nothing ventured, nothing lost" and nothing to feel guilty about
o too afraid to take risks
o inhibited person may be impotent or frigid
mode: Their bodies vigorously intrude into space and onto other people. Their intrusion and curiosity extends to sexual matters and achievements as well. Parental responses to children's self-initiated activities determine the successful or unsuccessful outcome of this stage.
Children use of language become polished, children begin to envision themselves as growing up and identify with people whose work and personalities they understand and admire. Play of preschoolers become more realistic and purposeful. The ego strength that emerges at this time is purpose.
--Erikson called the Oedipus complex an early
generational complex: It is the child's first experience with the unrelenting sequence of generations, growth, and death. The same sex parent becomes involved in the child's early genital fantasies at a time when the child's initiative is ready to turn away from the present situation to new goals. At the same time, the child's strong imagination and guilt and leads to the development of conscience.
--The virtue that emerges out of the duality of initiative vs. guilt is purpose:
Purpose: a view of the future giving direction and focus to our mutual efforts. Enables one to develop a sense of reality that is defined by what is attainable
Industry vs. inferiority
Industry vs Inferiority
• Industry: being busy with something .. learning to make something and make it well.
• There are higher expectations for the child and for developing mastery of certain tasks
o Maladaptation: too much industry: narrow virtuosity
Kids without a childhood
An empty life
o Maladjustment: too little industry:
Those who suffer from "inferiority complexes"
Motto: If at first you don't success don't ever try again
During latency certain passionate and imaginative qualities of earlier years calm down so that the child is free to concentrate on learning. Learning involves more than just a basic form of striving that takes place throughout the life cycle and undergoes a special crisis during the school years. The focus moves from the id to the ego as the child applies to specific and approved goals through interaction with cultural institutions. At this time., society intervenes in a more formal manner to develop the child's capacities and potentials.
Children in all cultures are thought skills that will be needed in their society and attain sense of mastery. Children are expected to learn something from their culture in order earn the respect of their teachers and peers. Their ability to conform and master the tasks of this level dependens in large on measure on how successful they have travelled the preceding stages. If children emerge from the preceding stages with a basic sense of trust, autonomy, and intiative, they are ready for industrious labor that school presupposes. The child who has not resolved his or her oedipal complex may not be ready to fulfill the other demands of his or society.
Ego Identity vs. Roles confusion
= Genital stage and is divided into 4 subgroups.
-Virtue = fidelity
Fidelity: Learning how to be faithful
Ego identity vs role confusion: When the individual explores the question who am I. Going through both physical growth and psychological challenges. Where they learn to manage role confusion: encounter how to mage multiple competing identities.
• Maladaptation: too much "ego identity": fanaticism (If the person over identifies with one thing and don't have own sense of identity)
o No room for tolerance
• Maladjustment: Lack of identity: repudiation
o Allow selves to "fuse" with a group, especially if its eager to provide details of ID (religious cults, military, hate groups)
o May be involved in destructive activities
The process of how you see yourself with how others see you.
--The adolescent who cannot find a meaningful adult role runs the risk of identity crisis= a transitory failure to establish a stable identity.
Consequence: Drop out of mainstream society for a short period
-Negative Identity: One that is opposed to the dominant values of their upbringing. ( The person turn out as an adult opposite of how they were raised).
Result: social pathology, crime, or expressions of prejudice
---2. Intimacy Versus Isolation: Love
--3. Generativity: Versus Stagnation: Care
--4. EGo Integrity Versus Despair: Wisdom
Stage 6: Intimacy vs. Isolation
Intimacy: Ability to form a close and meaningful relationship with another person.
Isolation: Inability to form good relationship. If don't have strong sense of self, then can't form good relationships and care for other people.
• Virtue= Love
The individual is able to transform the love received as a child and begin to care for others. Love further represents a mutual devotion that is able to overcome the natural antagonism involved in any relationship between the sexes.
• Maladaptation: Too much/too quick intimacy: Promiscuity
o Tendency to become intimate too freely, too easily, and without depth ( Very easy to get)
• Maladjustment: Too little intimacy (isolation): Exclusion
o Tendency to isolate from love, friendship, an community
o Develop a hatefulness in compensation for one's loneliness
Stage 7: Generativity vs. Stagnation
• Generativity: more than just parenthood. About being able to be productive in life and work to take care of their children and yourself ( Next generation).
o Virtue= Care
o Maladaptation: too much generativity: Overextension
So generative - No longer allow R&R
Devoted to so many things, no longer contributes well
o Maladjustment: too little genertivity & too much stagnation: Rejectivity
Not participating in or contributing to society
-Failure to do so leads to stagnation=nation, boredom, and interpersonal impoverishment. Someone who does not have children can fufill generativity by playing with the kid of another person.
Care= doing something for somebody else.
Stage 8: Ego integrity vs. despair:
55+ ( maturity)
when one looks back on their life and their goals and access how well they've done in meeting those goals. Reflection time and dealing with the fact that some goals may never get accomplished.
• Virtue: Wisdom
Wisdom enables an individual to bring life to an appropriate closure. It is the ability to look back and reflect on one's life in the face of death.
• Maladaptation: person presumes integrity: Presumption
o In denial of old age
o Without facing the difficulties of old age
• Maladjustment: too little integrity (contempt
of life, one's own r anyone's) : Disdain
Erikson's wife Joan introduced the 9th stage at 90 years old.
She described the specific challenges presented to elders whose control over their bodies and lives is eroded by the inevitable wages of time. She talks about the important role of faith and hope in continuing to find joy and wisdom in life.
• Dystonic resurgence (-) vs gerotranscendence (+)
• No new crisis
• Return to earlier stages to confront neg from prior stages
Psychosocial Stages compared w/
Eriksons: trust vs mistrust= Freud Oral sensory (0-1 year)
Erikson: Autonomy vs shame/guilt= Freud anal muscular) (1-3)
Erikson: initiative vs guilt (genital-locomotor) (3-5)= • Freud: Phallic (4-5)
Erikson: industry vs inferiority (6-11)=• Freud: Latency (5-puberty)
Erikson stages 5-8 =• Freud adolescence - adulthood)
Measurement of Stage Level
- Various measures
- Most used: Marcia's interview
• identity Achievement: crisis and commitment
• Identity Diffusion: no crisis, no commitment
• Moratorium: crisis without commitment
• Identity Foreclosure: commitment without crisis - Are not in any particular order
• one's stage at any given moment could be any one of these
- Identity Management happens mainly during adolescence stage
2. Identity Diffusion
4. Identity Achiever
Marcia developed an intricate interview formula to assess his statues:
• Someone who has not started exploring any alternatives to their identity
• Firmly committed without id crisis
• No separation between yourself and who you are getting your identity from
• Somebody who avoids exploring or making any commitments to a particular identity
• Paralyzed by thought of having to come up with an identity
• Reluctant to act
• No commitment
• Individuals who are in an identity crisis
• Vague commitments
• Has done a fair amount of exploring identities
• Clear, consistent personality
• Internal rather than external self definition
Women identity is more likely based on number of factors ( occupation, marriage, mothering). men identity is only occupation.
racial and ethnicity identity develops, there is a movement from a self-hating to a self-healing and cultural affirming self concept
1. Preencounter stage= The significance of the role o race and ethnicity in one's life is minimized
2. encounter stage arises from experiences, which can be positive or negative
3. Immersion/ emersion stage, individuals immerse themselves in their African American identity and may denigrate whites
4. Internalization= racial identity is balanced with other demands o being a person
5. Internalization/commitment= entails living according to one's new self- image, commitment to a plan of action an transcendence beyond specific ethnicity identity
Racial and Ethnic Identity
• groups exaggerated sense that they are different from others, leading to conflict among groups
• ex: racial prejudice
• religious prejudice
Assessment and Research
6. Describe how Erikson explored the role of culture and history in shaping personality
Study of two American Indian tribes
• Sioux tribe of Pine Ridge Reservation, South Dakota
o - Yurok tribe of Nothern California
1. --Erikson engaged n several studies that show how culture and history shape personality. He compared the child-rearing practices of two Native American groups, the Sioux and the Yurook. He concluded that each society uses childhood in a number of ways: To give meaning to the child's early experiences of its body and other people, to channel the child's energies in socially constructive ways, and to provide an overall framework of meaning for the anxieties that social living provokes.
2. He undertook a number of biographical studies on important historical figures such as Luther and gandhi
- Psychohistory; The study of individual and collective life with the combined methods of psychoanalysis an history
- Comments on Erikson's research methods
• used a variety of methods from different disciplines appropriate to his subject
- Emperical research in Erikson's theory
• Longitudinal research on his stages have not been conducted
• Levinson suggests that some developmental issues are always present in adulthood
• Culture and ethnicity important in development
Discuss Erikson's findings in the area of sex differences
In his discussion of sex differences, Erikson explored boys' and girls; concepts of inner and outer space
Girls emphasize inner space and qualities of openness vs. closeness. Boys concentrate on outer space and qualities of highness and lowness. A woman's productive inner space is an inescapable factor in her development, whether social, historical, and other conditions lead her to build her life around it or not. Women are influence by the awareness of their reproductive capacity
8. Discuss Erikson's methods of research
9. -Erikson developed techiniques of study approapriate to his subject. There are parallels between the evidence used by a psychoanalyst and that used in a psychohistorical study. Each event is considered in terms of its coherence with the individual's life
9. Descriibe empirical research based on Erikson's theory
Empirical research on Erikson's theory includes Marcia's theory of adolescence, Levinson's expanin on the adult development of men and women, and research on ethnic and other forms of identity
Evaluate Erikson's theory from the viewpoints of philosophy, science, and art
The coherence method of truth that erikson employs is characteristic of the philosopher. Erikson does not insist on a scientific pretense of his work. The philosophical statements entailed in his toery are explicit
Dan McAdams (1954-)
1. - in order to understand personality development we have to see our lives as a narrative or story.
2. Each of us develops identify and comes to know who we are by constructing a conscious or unconscious narrative of the self, which develops as we proceed through the stages of psychosocial development.
3. Personality is compound made up of traits, characteristic, adaptions, and life stories. These stories is the unity in the self in our postmodern period.
Life Story and Sense of Self
• Defining self
o First years: legacy of optimisim or pessimism:
--set the tone for our myths. In the elementary school years, motives and themselves develop, usually organized around themses of ageny -, the striving for invidual independence and power., and communion, the striving for intimacy and union.
nuclear episodes signify highs, lows, and turning points and reflect our motivation at various stages of ego development.
Thematic lines= repeated series of similar goals are also key components of our life stories.
--Throughout out stories
o Elementary school years: motives and themes relating to agency and communion develop
o Adolescent period: face the problem of identity and become self-conscious in myth making
o Adulthood: Generativisty
Being able to invest in someone else's future
Trying to be creative in activities
People that are more Generative
• A worldview characterized by the need to help others
• Values and beliefs that indicate moral steadfastness
• The belief that negative experiences can be transformed into positive outcomes
• Anticipation of the future with prosocial
In middle age we develop a generatively script that links our individual personal myths to the collective myths of humanity.
11. Describe the contributions that McAdamas makes to personality theory
McAdams has expanded Erikson's theory in the study of life narratives and generativity, and the suggested a new framework for organizing research in personality into an integrative study of the whole person
concern for an commitment to future generations, and developed a new model that draws on Erikson's theory, but he also makes some significant departures from it. Generativity is an issue because of increase cultural demand for it. Beginning with individual and shared desires that guide one to find occasions to care for others and cultural demands about assuming responsibility for the next generation as one get older, generativity leads to conscious concern for the next generation, Generativity includes belieds in the investemnet of the future and commitments to generative actions.
McAdam define the self through
1. The evolved general design of Human nature
2. Dispositional traits
3. HCaracteristics adaptions
5. Culture meaning systems and practices
Interactive life narative
1. What is the difference between Object Relations Theory and Relational cultural theory aka Human relationship:
intrapsychic experience of relationships with others
1. Roots come from psychoanalytical theory
• We have drives and we focus on the object to satisfy it
• The objects are primarily people: care taker or sign other
• The relationship with these objects projects the heath of relationships one will have later in life.
Theories Seeks to understand the interaction between intrapsychic dynamics and interpersonal relationships.
1. Object refer to any target through which an infant seeks to satisfy the aim of a drive.
Object relation theorists shifted toward a relational structural model in which an inborn drive to form and maintain human relationships is the basic need from which other drives their meaning. They emphasize on the importance of effectively meeting early infantile needs
EX: Trauma Develops into
1. pathological delay
2. the stunting of emotional growth and ego formation.
Psychopathology is an expression of traumatic self-object internalizations from childhood that are acted out in our current relationships. Dysfunctional behavior is an immature effort to resolve early trauma
2. Relational-cultural theory: Emphasize the interpsychic experience of relationships between people, or the connections and disconnections that occur between people in relationships.
Melanie Klein (1882-1960)=
Object relation theorist
• Proposed that drives are psychological forces that seek people as their objects
• Described the process of splitting objects and feelings into good and bad aspects
children construct their own imental representations of other people and project them onto real people (externals). They use experience with those people to confirm or disconfirm their mental representations and to interpret their relationships with them.
They do this by splitting objects and feelings into good and bad categories in an effort to retain good ones as part of the self while getting rid of bad ones by projecting them onto others.
-This splitting of objects permits children to treat the in internalized object as good or bad trusting and loving the actual external person who is an combination of both.
EX: feeling of "good me" occur when the child is accepted by the mom and the feeling of "bad me" occur when the child is not accepted by the mom -mom is frustrated and the child feels rejected.
Frustration promotes the infant's separation and leads to individuation. Based on object relations theory, personality is shaped by relationships with significant others. We begin life with genetic predisposition but with no sense of self-identity. Through interactions with significant others we take the self part of others and build self-structure.
Problem with object relations:
o We cannot think of the world as all good or all bad
• Problematic object relations can extend to food and alcohol
o b/c one thinks that food and alcohol are good all the time
• apply well to understand psychopathology and narcissistic personality,
--Object includes human and objects. People develop relationships with nonhuman things such as toys and pets.
Some relations are healthy and some are not. The basic pattern of all these relationships is established early In life.
Margaret Mahler (1897-1985)
-Margaret Mahler explored the processes of separation-individuation-by which the child emerges from a symbiotic, or innate fusion with the mother and develops individual characteristics.
--The separation individuation theories is applied to people with addictions
Mahler's findings confirm that the biological birth of an infant and the psychological birth of an individual are not the same. The biological is distinct event and the psychological is a gradual unfolding process.
Separation= physical differentiation and separateness form one's primary caregiver
Individuation=psychological growth away from one's primary caregiver and toward one's unique identity.
The roots of identity, ego strength, and conflict resolution occur in the Oedipus complex
Before Separation-individuation there are phases:
1. Normal autism and Normal symbiosis, in which the infant's ego develops from a state of absolutely primary narcissism to a recognition of an external world. There is no real separation of self from mother but development occur to promote the individuation process. Child fuses themselves with care taker
Baby doesn't seem themselves as separate from the mother at all. Not much awareness and the external world
The Separation-individuation is made up of 4 stages
2. differentiation: infant creates separate body image form caretaker- (5 -9 months)
3. Practicing: learning to develop motor skills and understanding that they can do things on their own in terms of motor abilities ( perfecting independence)= 10-14 months
4. Rapprochement 14-24months: child becomes aware that they are separated from mother
- Experience feelings of loss when mother is not there and when they realize that moms are not perfect.
4. Consolidation: 2-3 years The child synthesizes both good and bad aspects of mother.
--Child gets sense of individuality that is separate from mother
with the image of her as a separate entity in the external world and the beginning of the child's own individuality and separate personhood as seen in the development of a self-concept based on a stable sense of me ( 2 to 3 years)
Use to help people get along with other people-
Heinz Kohut (1913-1981)
Proposed the Self-theory:
Children need to be mirrored—to have their talk and their accomplishments acknowledged, accepted, and praised. Little children believe they are omnipotent and idealize their parents. Such idealization enables them to develop goals. This depends on how the parent respond to them. If parents fail to respond in appropriate ways, children may be unable to develop a good sense of self-worth and may spend the rest of their lives looking for their self that will never be found.
A good self gives one the opportunity to know who they are and purpose.
Narcissistic individuals are looking for an idealized parent substitute tat can never be found. They have failed to develop an independent self.
There are two types of self:
1. Nuclear self
2. Autonomous Self
Is the core self, that emerges at 2 years old. The nuclear self is bipolar: Ambition+ goals= talents and skills. Supportive family relations allow the nuclear self to grow and become more cohesive, leading to an autonomous self.
--The nuclear self starts off blank and white and create a balance between goals and ambition.
Autonomous Self= self-esteem and self-confidence, general ambition and precise goals, and develops talents and skills in order to meet them. Shows healthy independence and flexibility in interpersonal relations. The result of nuclear self that find balance. Thinking realistically on your own.
oThis disorder occur from failure in parental empathy and mirroring, recurrent self-absorption, low-self-esteem, and chronic sense of emptiness
occur when an individual fails to develop an independent sense of self. Is characterized by an exaggerated sense of self importance and self-involvement behaviors that hide a fragile sense of self-wroth. Occur failure in parental empathy and mirroring, recurrent self-absorption, low-self-esteem, and chronic sense of emptiness. The child never feels like they are being acknowledged or seen in a positive light by their parents
o May seem confident but are very insecure and have low self-esteem
o Tend to depend on others for praise and acknowledgment
o Comes from failure in parental empathy and mirroring
o Lack confidence from previous relationships
So look externally for self confidence and praise
• Children tend to see their parent's through
Treatment: Therapists can imagine themselves into the patient's skin by cultivating feelings of being understood and appreciated in the patient so that the arrested growth of the patient's self can begin again. Narcissistic Patient reflect idealation that reflect their early parent-child relationship struggle. Therapy permits them to rework these relationships through to a better resolution. At the end of therapy the patient acquired oedipal constellation.
---Oedipal constellation the patient find the self that they never had, which was associated with positive emotions. This made him believe that when children develop normally, the Oedipus complex may be a joyful experience.
Authoritative= less likely to cause narcissistic
Authoritarian = more likely to cause narcissistic maladjustment.
Many people who have narcissistic disorders have parents who were indifferent, cold, and hostile toward them. Narcissistic people cannot trust or depend on other people.
rose colored glasses (black and white thinking)
Otto Kernberg (1928-)
Elaborated on the notion of splitting to describe the interpersonal relationships of patients with borderline personality disorder.
borderline personality disorder: A serious mental illness more common than schizophrenia or bipolar disorder but less well known,
Symptoms of Borderline Personality disorder:
1. patients cannot engage in introspection, develop insight, and work through problems
2. See things black and white
3. Have major mood swings
4. Are inclined to see significant others in their lives as all good or all bad.
5. They display oral tendencies of dependency needs and powerful aggressive tendencies with reference to their oedipal struggles.
o Is the anger the patient is feeling from a past relationship with parent or sign other
• Aggression is viewed as a major force
o With females: more passive aggressive
Kernberg elaborated on the notion of splitting as failing to consolidate positive and negative experiences between oneself and other people. Borderline people swing back and forth between conflicting images, seeing one and the same person as both loving and hateful rather than being able to see one loving person who at times accepts and at other times rejects. See example on page 163
Is used to treat patients with borderline personality disorder.
Treatment can be face to face 2 sessions or three times a week. The therapist plays a more active role than is typical of classical psychoanalysis. The stress is placed on current behavior rather than past events. Therapists depicts and discusses the patients' distortions of reality such as a distorted view of the therapist.
Source of libido is the emotional state of sexual excitement that embraces all physiological activated functions and body zones engaged in the erotic arousal of a parent-child relationship.
Personality disturbances are caused by early emotional events with significant others. They are the result of lack of integration of libidinal and aggressive object relations.
Patients with narcissistic or borderline disorders frequently express hate, rage, and envy.
The therapist must be able
1. to maintain a posture of technical neutrality in order to clarify and interpret the transference
2. tolerate the ambiguity of his or her position and not let their patients feel that their cure is essential to his own well-being because they might think better of themselves.
Mature religiosity: An intergraded value system that entails the prevalence of love over hatred and of libido over the death drive.
Nancy Chodorow (1944 -)
---Nancy Chodorow believes that mothering by women reproduces cyclically, producing daughters with the desire and capacity to mother but sons whose nurturing abilities are limited and repressed
• The reproduction of mothering
o The relationship b/w the mother and daughter ends up perpetuating gender roles
o Cyclical process by which mother-daughter relationship instills the daughter a desire to take the role of mother
• Figure 7.1 Reproduction of Mothering
o Parenting done by mother
o Start to generate gender identity
Mother starts to relate to daughter and son differently
Sees daughter as similar and projects her motherliness on the daughter more
Relational activities emphasized
Need for reciprocal intimacy
Entrance into domestic sphere
Starts to see her as different from him
Mother is emphasizing activities that don't teach caretaking skills
Even if son has needs to have relational intimacy, it is repressed
Develops lack of desire to parent
Entrance into public sphere
- Facilitated by Stone Center for Developmental Services a
A process by which the mother-daughter relationships instills in the daughter maternal capacities and a desire to take on the role of mother in future relationships. The capacity to mother does not come about as a result of a pregnant woman's physical or instinctual makeup or through deliberate role training. The early relationship between mothers and infants establishes a basis for parenting in children of both sexes and expectations that women will mother. Mothering meets a woman's psychological need to also mother.
Mothers see sons as dissimilar and do not experience the same feelings of oneness they have with their daughters. Boys' nurturing repressed as they are prepared to work outside of family ( Public sphere).
The psyche develops of men and women develop differently
differently in men and women. Women's personality develops in a way that emphasizes ongoing interpersonal relations, but men grow to see themselves as distinct and separate. This makes the two sexes have different roles:
nonrelationship activities for men and relational acitivities for women see page 165
Culture and politics affect but do not determine how women personally experience their bodies, their gender, and their relationships of their mothers and daughters
7. Identify the Stone Center group
-The Stone Center group is a group of women who believed that traditional theorists of human nature and development misunderstood, disregarded, or devalued several aspects of women's experiences.
Basic beliefs about who we are develop within the mutual connection of interpersonal relationships, not in the process of separating from each other
Table 7.1 Stone Center Group
Stone Center Paradigm
• emphasizes that the goal of development is to form connections with others
Relational Cultural Theory
Facilitated by Stone Center for Developmental Services and Studies at Wellesley College, MA
- Developed by a group of women
- Collaborative theory of human development within relationships
- Psychology of development of both sexes constrained and contorted by "framework of inequity"
- Women have critical strengths largely recognized by society, that can bring creative force to human problems
- Tried to conceptualize what was thought of as weakness as strength
o Ex. Femininity as weakness and masculinity as strength and autonomy
- realized that past theories were greatly emphasized for men rather than women
- Relationships, dependence, empathy are just as important in human experience and personality development as past masculine ideas of self sufficiency
- found that men and women are more similar in personality traits
- men and women do express and experience emotions differently
Describe the thesis of Jean Baker Miller's Toward a New Psychology of Women
-Jean Baker Miller's thesis is that both sexes have been pictured by a framework of inequity in which one sex was thought to be of more worth than the other.
1. Making Men dominant and females subordinate prevents both genders from reaching their potential.
2. The concepts of affiliation and relationship are central to the development of human beings. She asserted that women have critical strengths that are not recognized by our society ( cleaning cooking). The initial development of all human beings in affiliation and relation ( rather than self-enhancement) and suggested
the need to place our faith in building connections with others rather than in our own individual power, achievement, and self-sufficiency
The relational cultural theory suggest that the organizing feature of human growth is the feeling of connectedness to others.
Connectedness is the ability to make and build relationships in the source of our sense of effectiveness and worth.. Participating another people's psychological growth is an integral aspect of human life, providing a new psychological model of human development within relationships
Shifting the Paradigm:
connectedness to others sis the basic origin of growth
• neuroscience research on gender differences and similarities
• both men and women that need to form close connected relationships
- Disconnections block our growth and prevent people from engaging in mutually exclusive empathetic relationships
- need to shift thinking from a paradigm based on individualistic values towards relational values
- relationship-differentiation process
• as you get older, you are able to engage in and manage more complex relationships
• learn to develop positive relationships
• depending on where you are in development your relationships with people change as well
- goal is psychological growth
Relational-Cultural theory makes a paradigm shift away from a concept of separation-individuation and individualistic values to a concept of relationship differentiation and relational values
What is needed to create connection?
• empathy fosters connections and leads to growth within relationships
• Mutual empathy foster mutual empowerment characterized by zest
Contrast with psychoanalysis
• More emphasis on conflicts, competition, and aggression
• Goal to gain pleasure
Empathy: being able to experience other people's thoughts and feelings at the same time understanding your own
Mutual Empathy leads to the ability to take
1. action in the situation
2. Increase knowledge of ourselves and others, to a sense of worth and of the legitimacy of our feelings and to the desire to make more connections.
Zest: the feeling of authentic emotion
See page 172 for examples of empathy
Block our growth.
1. Disconnection is the major source of psychological problems.
2. When a person cannot engage in mutually empathic and empowering relationships.
Minor disconnections do not cause problems do us. They even lead us to grow and improve connections with people, feel safe and discuss the disconnection with others. The ability to reconnect after disconnecting is empowering.
Major disconnections are bad for us.
1. The person may feel unjustified in being distressed over the disconnection. Have problems in relations when the power is unequal.
--EX: attach or abuse relationships.
Anger leads to the central relational paradox; people who have experienced trouble in relationships continue to try to make new connections. However, some people do not because they cannot permit themselves to acknowledge the full range of their experience and feelings as they need to do in order to establish relationships.
-Disconnections and violations happen to people at all ages. However the basic rational images are created early in life.
Disconnected families are characterized by 3 outstanding patterns
1. Secrecy: denies unacceptable reality
2. Parental inaccessibility: precludes mutually empathetic relationships
3. Parenting: requires the child to act prematurely as the grown-up.
People learn to survive disconnections by developing strategies for staying out of relationships by emotionally disengaging through inattention, preoccupation, withdrawal or the use of alcohol, drugs. They role play to win approval or give illusion of connection. Role playing can help but not always.
The relational-cultural theorists move away from individualistic values to relational ones and that places connection at the center of our thought.
- Can provide path to increased authentic connections
- Goal of therapy is to help patients make mutual empathetic connections
- Therapists remain open to their own experiences and permit themselves to be moved by their patient's feelings
• downside: the boundaries between patient and therapists blur
• RCT reconceives many traditional concepts such as anger, dependence, courage, shame, and power
o We need anger to know that something is wrong and something needs to change
o Dependence: allowing other people to help us cope until we are able to do it yourself
o Shame: yearning for connection. You feeling yourself as unworthy but just want to be connected with somebody else
o Power: instead of being able to control or manipulate it is seen as the capacity to produce change
Courage: is a contextual relational manner so that it no longer refers to a solitary accomplishment but an action taken in spite of fear and supported by the encouragement of others
Self-esteem emerged from relational confidence rather than mastery or self-efficacy
Shame is a deep yearning for connection while perceiving oneself as unworthy of it.
Sexual desire: can be seen in a framework of empathic communication rather than one of achievement and performance
• Explore parenting-in-connection:
o Parents way to showing children how to model connection and how to repair disconnect
• Study of the workplace and large organizations
Figure 7.2 Disappearing Act
• Women struggled in trying to emphasize relations in the work place
-The major source of psychological problems is disconnections: Which prevent people from engaging in mutually empathic relationships
Neurobiological Basis of Relationships
Research in neurobiology confirms theoretical work of RCT
• mirror neurons and empathy
o active in motor cortex
o when we mimic others or other mimic us, it creates a strong sense of connection
o autistic people have a dysfunctional mirror neuron system:
why it is difficult for them to empathize and understand others emotions
• Brain chemistry affected by interaction
o Positive interactions vs negative interactions
Positive interaction: brain releases chemicals related to pleasure
Negative interaction: brain releases chemicals related to decreasing pleasure
• Neuroplasticity and reworking destructive neural patterns
• Social pain and physical pain in the anterior cingulate
o Mind and body experience both types of pain in similar ways
Psychotherapy can change and overcome the negative effects of disconnection by establishing new relationships that empower individuals. The emphasis is on creating a new rational experience that fosters healing
-Most psychological problems are a result of the basic relational paradox: They are consequences of the effort to avoid engaging in relationships. The Stone Center group try to identifying the origins of disconnection . the goal of the therapy is to help the patient make mutual empathetic connections by using relational-cultural therapy, which creates a new relationship between therapist and patient that is crucial for the process of healing. The therapists are open to their own experiences and permit themselves to be moved by their patients' feelings. The therapists and patients are moving toward mutual empathy. The therapists' responsibility is to facilite the process of moving in relationship by letting the patient know when and how the patient is affecting her. This helps people believe that they can experience and sort out feelings with another person. The therapist maintains an attitude of neutrality and objectivity to facilitate the patient's process of projecting feelings toward people in his or her past onto the therapists.
- Neutrality can hinder the process of therapy because it prevents the patients from seeing the difference between the current relationships and past ones. Therapist and patient need to be among colleagues and peers with whom they can share their experiences.
See page 175
Emphasizes need for interdisciplinary perspective
- Theories have not generated much laboratory research because of the lack of specificity and operational definitions
• concepts not clearly defined
- Has enormous impact on clinical area
--The human relations theorists do not insist on a simply scientific basis for their work but make explicit philosophical assumptions. They include many variables in their discussion, believing that a narrow scientific methodology is not appropriate for the study of personality. Their work has had an enormous impact in clinical psychology. There work is based on empirical observations see page 181
Dollard, Miller, and B.F Skinner
emphasize experience and learning as the primary forces that shape human behavior.
Dollar and Miller's orientation is called psychoanalytic leanring theory because it is a creative attempt to bring together the basic concepts of Freudian psychoanalytic thoery with the ideas of language, methods, and results of experimental laboratory research on learning and behavior
Skinner's is called radical behaviorism: stimulus-repsonse theory of psychology can acocount for all of the overt behaviors that psychologists seek to explain, Skinner omitted the psychoanalytic underpinning and simply relied on behaviorist principles. This allowed him to suggest that personality and personality theories are superfluous.
1. Describe How Behavior and Learning theorists study personality experimentally
1. studying behavior in laboratory settings.
2. Their precise methods reflect empirical points of view and the careful manipulation of variables under specified controlled conditions.
Empiricism: Suggests that all knowledge originates in experience. John Lock said we are born with a blank slate (tabula rasa) on which sensory experience writes in a number of different ways. Knowledge comes from experience.
-I think therefore I am= Rationalism= Descarte.
2. Identify the early contributions of Pavlov, Watson, Thorndike, and Hull
Early behaviorists include:
1. Pavlov= classical conditioning: In lab, Pavlov took a hungry dog and presented it with food (US- naturally elicits salivation- UR ( Automatic, response). Then he simultaneously paired the food with the sound of a bell (NS- does not normally elicit salivation). The dod salivated to the paired food and sound of the bell. After several presenttaions of both food and bell, Pavlov presented the sound of the bell and the dog salivated. The sound of the bell = CS—CR. Pavlov showed that by pairing an US with NS, he could elicit a response that was elicited in the orginal condition
1. Watson =whose theory recommended an emphasis on overt behavior ( Behaviorism) : psychology emphasize on overt behavior rather than covert
2. Thorndike= formulated the law of effect: states that when a behavior or performance is accompanied by frustration, it tends to decrease. The law of effect is not universal. Sometimes frustration leads to increased efforts to perform. Most people believe that this law is true.
3. Hull, who clarified the concept of drive reduction:
3. Define and give examples of habits, drives, and reinforces
-Dollard and Miller describe the structure of personality in terms of habits that may be learned and unlearned.
Habits: refers to some kind of learned associations between a stimulus and a response that makes them occur together frequently. They are temporary structures because they can appear and disappear, they can be learned and unlearned.
The primary dynamic underlying personality development and the acquisition of habits is drive reduction: Drive: Is a strong stimulation that produces discomfort, such as hunger.
Learning occurs only if a response of an organism is followed by the reduction of some need or drive.
EX: The infant learns to suck the breast or a bottle of milk in order to relieve hunger. If sucking the breast or a bottle of milk did not result in some drive or need reduction, the infant would not continue to perform that activity.
They distinguish between
1. primary drive,
2. secondary drives and reinforces as the primary motivating forces of personality.
1. Primary drives are those associated with physiological processes that are necessary for an organism's survival, such as the drives of hunger, thirst, and the need for sleep.
Secondary drives: are learned on the basis of primary ones. They are elaborations of the primary drives. EX: Being motivated to eat at one's usual dinner hour or wanting to earn money in order to buy food
Reinforce: is any event that increases the likelihood of a particular response
1. Primary reinforcers are those that reduce primary drives such as food, water, or need for sleep.
2. Secondary reinforcers are originally neutral, but they acquire reward value when they are associated with primary reinforces.
EX: Bell is the secondary reinforce and food is the primary reinforce.
EX: Money because you can use it to buy food. A mother's smile or word of praise because are associated with a state of physical well-being.
We acquire habits and develop specific behavioral responses through the process of learning.
reflex: responses and innate hierarchy of response.
reflex responses are automatic responses to specific stimuli. All of us blink automatically to avoid an irritant to the eye or sneeze to eliminate an irritant to the nose. Such reflexes are important for our survival.
Hierarchy of response: Refers to a tendency for certain responses to occur before others.
EX: an animal runs to avoid a shock rather than cringe and bear it in pain. If a response is unsuccessful, however, an organism will try the next response in the hierarchy. Learning involves reinforcing and/ or rearrange the response hierarchy
4. Describe the four main conceptual parts of the learning process
1. Drive ( wants something): Is a stimulus that impels a person to act, but does not direct or specify a behavior
2. cue ( notice something): Is a stimulus that tells the organism when, where, and how to respond.
EX: The ringing of a bell or the rime on a clock is a cue to students to ender or leave the classroom.
3. Response (does something): Is one's reaction to the cue. Because responses occur in hierarchy, we rank it according to its probability of occurring. By this innate hierarchy can be changed though learning
4. reinforcement ( gets something): Refers to the effect of the responses. Effective reinforcement consists of drive reduction. If a response is not reinforced, it will undergo extinction. Extinction does not eliminate a response but merely inhibits it, enabling another responses to grow stronger and supersede it in the response hierarchy. If present responses are not reinforcing, the individual is placed in a learning dilemma and will try different responses until one is developed that satisfies the drive
5. Discuss findings from research into the learning process
A number of experiments have been conducted on the learning process, especially in the areas of frustration and conflict.
--Frustration occurs when one is unable to reduce a drive because the response that would satisfy it has been blocked.
--EX: The child who is not permitted to take a cookie from the cookie jar is frustrated.
-Conflict occurs when the frustration arises from a situation in which incompatible responses are occurring at the sometime,
EX: A child is asked to choose between a toy and a bar of candy. And the child wants them both. See page 192
Types of conflict are:
1. Approach -approach conflict: The individual is simultaneously attracted to two goals that have postive value but are incompatible ( you are in love with two people at once and are force to make a choice)
2. Avoidance-avoidance conflict: A person faces two undesirable alternatives ( The hot plate is burning your hands but if you drop it you will spill the food)
3. Approach-avoidance conflict: one goal both attracts and repels the individual ( your date is both attractive and obnoxious)
4. Double approach-avoidance conflict: an individual must deal simultaneously with multiple goals that both attract and repel
See age 194
Experiments with infra-human species have been quite successful in predicting the behavior of simple laboratory animals under controlled conditions. EX: Rat in the lab
6. Explain how Dollard and Miller have integrated learning theory and psychoanalysis
-Dollard and Miller have adapted many Freudian concepts and integrated them into learning theory.
Unconscious processes are unlabeled drives and cues.
There are two main determinants of unconscious processes:
1. We are unware of certain drives or cues because they are unlabeled. These drives and cues may have occurred before we learned to speak and were unable to label them. Or because a society has not given them labels.
EX: We have one word for scow but Eskimos have 30 plus words for snow.
2. Unconscious processes refer to cues or responses that once were conscious but have been repressed because they were ineffective. Repression is learned. When we repress, we do not think about certain thoughts or label them because they are unpleasant. Avoiding these thoughts reduces the drive by redcuing the unpleasant experience.
Defense mechanism are learned responses or behaviors
4 stages in child development
1. the feeding situation in infancy: Oral stage
2. Cleanliness training: Anal stage
3. Early sex training: Phallic stage
4. Training for control anger and aggression: Phallic stage
At each stage, social conditions of learning imposed by the parents may have enormous consequences for future development. The outcome of Dollar and Miller's stages are controlled by learning. Self-generated activity is effective inreduciing drives
The defense mechanisms and critical stages of development are also reconceived in terms of learning process. Miller and Dollard used Freud's terms but translated them differently. The translation, though inexact, has helped to popularize Freud and stimulate experimental study of his ideas. Behavior is learned in the process of seeking to reduce drives
7. Describe Dollard and Miller's practice of psychotherapy
- Dollard and Miler's therapy represents a bridge to the more directive and active therapies of other learning theories. Behavior therapy involves unlearning ineffective habits and substituting more adaptive responses
EX: Neurotic conflicts are taught by parents and learned by children.
Therapy involves the application of learning principles in which unlearning old, ineffectivem unproductive habits and substituting new more adaptive and productive responses.
EX: Fear, a learnable drive that reinforces responses that reduce it, can motivate either adaptive or maladaptive behavior. The individual can learn to reduce the fear of something. Psychotherapy aim to reduce fear so that reasoning and planning can occur. Training in suppression ( the contrained to suppression, rather than repress, thoughts or actions that reinforce old habits and at the same time be deliberately exposed to new cues that will evoke different repsonses
Reciprocal inhibition: which entails the introduction of competitive response that will interfere with the original maladaptive reponse
Systematic desensitization: which a patient is conditioned to stop resppondng to a stimulus in an undersired manner and to substitute a new response. Relaxation is often a very successful competing response.
8. Evaluate Dollard and Miller's theory from the Viewpoint of philosophy, science, and art
Dollard and Miller's theory of personality seeks to emulate a scientific model and places a great deal of emphasis on empirical research
-Dollar and Miller developed their theory of personality through laboratory studies and experimentation.
-What an organism can learn is limited by species specific behavior—complex, rather than reflex behaviors that occur in all members of a species. Some stimuli are relevant for one species but not others.
His father was a lawyer
-His parents thought him to fear God, the police, and what people think
-His grandma thought him to please God and to look for his evidence in everything he did
-His childhood experience reinforced his own adult behavior
-He was interested in how to make machines and animals behaviors
9. Explain why Skinner emphasizes overt behavior and avoids developing a theory of personality
Skinner developed a psychology that concentrated on the person and on those variables and forces in the environment that influences a person and may be directly observed. The term personality was superfluous because overt behavior can be completely comprehended un terms of Reponses to factors in the environment. The effort to understand or explain behavior in terms of internal structures such as personality or an ego is to speak about fiction because such structures cannot be directly impossible to develop systematic and empirical means of testing them. Skinner suggested that we concentrate on the environmental consequences that determine and maintain an individual's behavior. One can consider the person as empty and observe how changes in the environment affect the individual's behavior
-Skinner chose to describe variables and forces in the environment that shape overt behavior.
He believed that the term personality seeks to emulate a scientific model and places a great deal of emphasis on empirical research
10. Describe the process of operant conditioning, and compare it with classical conditioning
Reinforcement is anything that increases the likelihoods of a response. It is the effect of one's behavior that determines the likelihoods of its occurring again/
Ex; IF a young child cries or whines, parental attention will follow. If the behavior is reinforced, the child will repeat crying and whining.
Distinguish among different schedules and types of reinforcement, and indicate their effectiveness
Operant conditioning: involves reinforcing and shaping spontaneous responses.
Two types of behaviors are:
1. Respondent and operant
Respondent behavior: refers to reflexes or automatic responses that are elicited by stimuli. EX: tapping the knee on the right spot makes the leg jerk forward. When we touch something hot, we pull our hands away. Respondent behaviors can be conditioned or changed through learning
EX: Dog learns to salivate in the presence of a bell
Operant behaviors: are responses emitted without a stimulus necessarily being present. They occur spontaneously. Not all of the newborn movements are flex responses. Some of term are operant behaviors in which the infant acts on the environment.
Operant conditioning differs from classical conditioning 1. 1. The nature of the behavior is naturally made and is followed by a reinforcer.
2. Classical conditioning, the nature of the behavior is elicited and is preceded by a reinforcer.
4. The process of operant conditioning is better than classical conditioning because behaviors that cannot be accounted with classical conditioning can be with operant conditioning.
4. respondent behavior id elicited by a stimulus.
Operant behavior is emitted or freely made by the organism.
5. In classical conditioning, the stimulus is the reinforcement, and it precedes the behavior.
In operant conditioning, the effect of the behavior is reinforcement. Thus in operant conditioning the reinforcement follow the behavior
Operant conditioning are done in the Skinner box ( see page 199)
Shaping: the deliberately shaped or molded the organism's behavior in order to achieve the desired behavior so that a researcher does not have to wait for a long time for the organism to learn the behavior. ( Is done through reinforcement). See page 200
1. discrimination: the ability to tell the difference between stimuli that are not reinforced
2. generalization: The application of a response learned In one situation to a different but similar situation
Through shaping Skinner was able to induce animals to perform
Skinner described three schedules of reinforcement:
1. Continuous reinforcement: The desired behavior is reinforced each time that it occurs. IS extremely effective in initially developing and strengthening a behavior. If the reinforcement is stopped, the response quickly disappears or undergoes extinction is effective for initially developing a behavior
2. Internal reinforcement and ratio reinforcement are more effective for maintaining the behavior.
Internal reinforcement: The organism is reinforced after a certain time period has elapsed,, regalrdless of the response rate. Interval reinforcement may occur on a fixed or on a variable basis. If the schedule is fixed, the same time period elapses each time (such as five minutes). If it is variable, the time periods may differ in length. Interval reinforcement occurs frequently in the everyday world/ EX: Employees are paid at the end of each week/ Students are given grades at certain interval within a year
3. Ratio reinforcement: The rate of reinforcement is detrmined by the number of appropriate reponses that the organism emits. A factory worker may be paid according to the number of pieces that he or she completes. Ratio schedules of reinforcement can be fixed or variable. If fixed, the number of responses required prior to reinforcement is tsable and unchaning. If schedule is variable, the number of appropriate operant behaviors that must occur prior to reinforcement changes for time to time.
1. Generalized conditioned reinforcer
2. Positive reinfrocement
3. Negative reinforcement
1. Generalized conditioned reinforce such as praise and affection, which are learned and have the power to reinforce a great number of different behaviors. They can be self-given. EX: As we grow older, we move from primary reinfoccers to more generalized secondary types.
2. Positive reinforcement occurs when a behavior is followed an increase in response in the future.
3. Negative reinforcement comes about when a behavior is followed by the termination of the an unpleasant situation
4. Punishment occurs when a behavior is followedby an unpleasant situation designed to eliminate it.
5. Satiation entails permitting the behavior to occur until the individual tires of it.
EX: A child may be allowed to light switch on and off until she become borned
11. Discuss Skinner's concept of behavior modification, and explain how it has been successfully employed
-Behavior modification seeks to restructure the environment so that undesired behaviors are eliminated and more desired ones substituted.
SKinner's approach has been successful in situations in which traditional insight methods has failed or is inappropriate.
--EX; Mute individuals or toddlers. His methods have also been used in therapeutic communities, education, and industry
--Teaching machine= device students may be taight without the need for an ever-present human instructor
If we get rewarded we do more of something. If we get punished, we do less of that behavior.
Token economy: Exchanging money to reinforce a behavior (think of Junior High)
12. Describe Skinner's concept of utopian society (or ideal environment)
Skinner advocated the development of social utopia, a behavioral engineered society in which a program of sensitive reinforces would shape behavior. Walden II describes the concept of utopia. Walden II was a behaviorally engineered society designed by a benevolent psychologists who employed a program of postive reinforcements. Because positive rather than aversive means were used to shape behavior, residents sought those reinforces and willingly behaved in socially responsible and productive ways
13. Show how Skinner's position includes philosophical assumptions as well as scientific statements
Skinner's utopian speculations reflect philosophical assumptions as well as scientific generalizations by not allowing for any exceptions and by invoking values and ethical commitments.
14. Evaluate Skinner's theory from the Viewpoint of Philosophy, science and art
Skinner's theory clearly evolved from experimental laboratory investigations and emulates a strict scientific approach. However, Skinner acknowledged the philosophical assumptions that underlie his theory
-Skinner's theory clearly evolved from experimental laboratory investigations and emulates a strict scientific approach. However, Skinner acknowledged the philosophical assumptions that underlie his theory
Psychological behaviorism: A detailed theory of personality that translates personality concepts into behavioral language. According to psychological behaviorism, personality characteristic, traits, temperaments, abilities, interests and attitudes are due to a long-term, complex, continuous process of learning.
Time-out: Avoids aversive punisments to eliminate undersired behavior by siply removing individual from the situation in which the undersired behavior occurred
- Born in small town in Alberta, Canada
- B.A in Psychology from Univerisity of British Columbia in Vancouver
- Graduate degrees from Univeristy of Iowa
- Careeer based at Standford University
- 1973 APA president
- 2006 Gold Medal Award for life Achievement in the science of psychology
1. Explain why an agentic perspective emerges in Bandura's theory and describe what human agency entails
- Viewed people as agents, or originators of experience
- Human agency is the ability to act and make things happen
- Agency entails:
1. Intentionality: People do things expecting an outcome or goal.
2. Forethought: People plan ahead and try to anticipate that we will get a certain outcome. That a certain outcome will occur.
3. Self-reactiveness: Allows to continue to do a certain behavior if we feel satisfied by it and aviod a behavior that lead to a certain consequence. We do things that give satisfaction and avoid things that are unpleasant.
4. Self-reflectiveness: When we get rewarded or punished with something, we have to reflect on it. Decide the pros and cos about a situation and make the best decision. For example, whether or not you should go to graduate school.
We create the environment that further influence us
2. Explain what Bandura means by triadic reciprocal causation, and identify the three factors that enter into it
Figure 9.1: A diagram of Triadic reciprocal causation: Human behavior is regulated by behavior, cognition, and envionmental factors. Behavior arise from the interraction of person and the envionment.
EX: Our brain change because we constantly interact with the environment.
Radical behaviorism is very deterministic in a sense that people are not free agent. They react on what they see in their environment. Illusion of choice= we think that we have free will but really we do not.
Bandura disagrees in that chances occur. Not everything is purposeful and determined. A lot of times we do things just because they happened to be.
3. Describe observational learning by identifying three factors that influence modeling, four processes that enter into observational learning, and the role of reinceforment in observational learning
Learning through observation:
o Behavior learned through observation either intentionally or accidentally
o Observational learning; learning through process of following a model
o Imitation: mimicking the model ( EX: the child do exactly what the instructor is doing, but as soon as a bike is changed or the instructor is no longer there the child will not know what to do. The child will not know how to generalize what he or she learned and apply it to similar situations.
o Modeling: matching the structure or style of behavior. Through modeling, the child knows how to ride any time of bike and generalize what they have learned
EX; Study: bandura used a doll. He had two groups of kid. One in experimental and one in control group.
The experimental group saw modeling from adult and control group did not. The kid in the experimental group learned how to play with the doll but those in the control group did not know how to play with the doll. Modeling in general is a good way for kid who cannot talk to learn. It is easier for them to watch something and follow along.
Three factors that influence modeling are:
1. Characteristics of model: EX: We are more likely to learn from someone who is similar to us and from simple behaviors such as washing the hair and aggression.
2. Attributes of the observer: the person watching the model. If the person has lower self-esteem, they are more influenced through observational learning. Also people who are dependent tend to be more easily influenced. The motivation of the observer.
3. Reward consequences associated with a behavior: The children are more likely to emulate a behavior if they believe they will be rewarded for doing the behavior
Process of observational learning:
Process of observational learning:
4. Explain what is meant by self-regulation
-Almost any behavior can be learned without direct experience
-Observational learning occurs while one is being exposed to modeled activity and before aby response has been made
Motivation in observational learning
2. Self-regulation: Is like self-motoring. You can check your own behavior and change it. Involves things like self-judgment. You reflecting on how well you do something.
5. Discuss bandura's contributions to the discussion of aggression, inhumane behavior, and moral disengagement
Frequent exposure to aggression and violence in the media encourages people to behave aggressively
-Moral disengament permits individuals and institutions to perpetuate and encourage violence and inhuman activities while justifying their behavior
-EX: Pediatrician request for parents to control how many hours the kid watch tV
-Modeling is more affective with activities such as violence than prosocial activities.
6. Explain the concept of self-efficacy
A central mechanism of personal agency and self-regulation
-Refers to belief that we can successfully perform behaviors that will produce desired effects
-Plays a central role in governing our thoughts, motivations, and actions
-Arises from past accomplishments and changes over the course of our lives
Collective self-efficacy occurs when a group believes in the group's ability to perform behaviors that will produce desired effects
-In general people do not do things they do not feel like doing.
-Self-efficacy is not good enough. It does not mean that if you had a good grade on the first it does not mean you will also do great on the second one.
-Other applications of self- efficacy are academic and athletic
7. Describe bandura's contributions to behavioral modification
- Behavioral modification: systematic use of modeling as an aid of changing behaviors
- Therapeutic strategies designed to help patients improve their perception over their own effectiveness through guided mastery experiences
- Encourages the use of contemporary technologies to modify behavior
Human relations: Object relationships theory: Intrapsychic experience of relationships with others
Human relations = relational cultural theory
Short answer questions:
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