Along with many casualties from both sides, the __________________ were that England struggled with economic burdens while the French became less dependent on England and raised taxes to pay for the war.
Results of the Hundred Years War.
Centered in Constantinople, the Turkish imperial state that conquered large amounts of land in the Middle East, North Africa, and the Balkans, and fell after World War I.
What was the greatest maritime republic in Italy?
What Italian city was the center of Renaissance culture in the 15th century?
Republic of Florence
Author of the "Prince". Stated that politically, "the ends justifies the means". Stated that for rulers, "it was better to be feared than to be loved".
Event caused by armies of the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V that symbolized the end of the Renaissance in Italy1527
Sack of Rome
known as the "father of humanism". Considered first modern writer (did not write about religion). Claimed the Middle Ages were the Dark Ages. Influenced by Cicero.
author of "The Book of the Courtier". Specified qualities neccesary to be a true gentlemen. Rejected crude social habits.
Sculptures of naked the naked human body, sculpures of humans made to perfection, and shows tremendous emotions.
How humanism is expressed in art
agreed upon by the Spanish and the Portuguese to clear up confusion on newly claimed land in the New World.
Treaty of Tordesillas
author of "In Praise of Folly", one of the most well-known northern humanists, criticized immorality and hypocrisy of Church leaders and the clergy.
began to enjoy increased access to education. Looked at as "ornaments" to their spouses.
Upper-class women during the Renaissance
Peasants only had nuclear family, wealthier people had extended families. Dowries were very important in families so both families could benefit.
Trends about marriage and family
Tended to be much more local or regional, weren't absolutist, and did not neccesarily feel like they belonged to a "nation".
Characteristics of "new monarchs"
Represents a major blow to papal influence in France because the kind of France now had power to appoint bishops to the Gallican (French) Church.
Concordat of Bologna
Goal was to remove the last of the Moors and the Jews and "Christianize" Spain.
What is the term for when investors pooled resources for a common purpose?
Joint stock company
the city that became the banking and commercial center of Europe in the 16th century.
Which class was most impacted by the Commercial Revolution?
Middle class (bourgeoisie)
Event during the 16th century where prices rose gradually, caused by the rising population of Europe increased the demand for goods.
The Price Revolution
Building on Bartholomew Dias' route, this man completed an all-water expedition to India in 1498.
Vasco de Gama
Priest and former conquistador who pulicly criticized the ruthlessness with which Columbus and his succesors treated the Amerindians.
Barholomew de las Casas
general movement in England to enclose the common land and waste land on which small farmers grazed their stock and to reduce the number of field strips used for growing crops.
Religous wars and divisions created a panic environment; blamed witches and began to pursue them
Purpose of witch hunts
He believed that people should obey their political authorities even if they were corrupt.
Luther's view on the Swabian Peasant Revolt
Temporarily ended the struggle in Germany over Lutheranism. Allowed German Princes to choose either Protestantism or Catholicism.
Peace of Augsburg
God already knows who is going to Heaven and who is destined for Hell.
Areas to which Calvinism spread
France, Scotland, and Netherlands
Someone who publicy converted faiths to gain the loyalty of the country
Reaffirmed the 7 sacraments to be true. Approved the "Index of Forbidden Books".
Council of Trent
Pope Paul III challenged Protestantism by improving church discipline and responding to Protestant criticism.
Features of Counter (Catholic) Reformation
author of "Spiritual Exercises" and the founder of the Jesuits (Society of Jesus)
Ignatius of Loyola
King of the Netherlands, led 17 provinces against the Spanish Inquisition
William of Orange
first Bourbon king, his rise to power ended the French Civil Wars, and he was a politique
degree of religious toleration to Huguenots
Edict of Nantes
Germany physically devastated. Germany was further divided by the decline of the Holy Roman Empire. Ended the wars of religion. Rise of France as the dominant European power. Balance of power diplomacy emerged in Europe. These were all __________.
Results of Thirty Years War
"Lord Protector", denied rights to Anglicans and Catholics, and allowed Jew to return to England.
nobles revolted against Mazarin, competition between nobles allowed Mazarin to defeat them. This "scuffle" is known as what?
Nobility of the Robe
new nobles who purchased their titles from the monarchy
an English military and political leader who overthrew the English monarchy and temporarily turned England into a republican Commonwealth
Oliver Cromwell's rule in England
Louis XIV's financial minister, his goal was for France to be economically self sufficient, and he oversaw things such as construction of roads and canals.
Jean Baptiste Colbert
State control over a country's economy; exporting more than you import.
a nation's policy of accumulating as much precious metal (gold and silver) as possible while preventing its outward flow to other countries.
this type of architecture reflected the image and power of absolute monarchs; this sculpture by Bernini evokes tremendous emotion
Baroque and the Ecstasy of St. Theresa
Paintings specialized in simple domestic interior scenes of ordinary people, he was a master in the use of light.
Jan Vermeer and the "Dutch Style"
began in 1660 when the English, Scottish and Irish monarchies were all restored under Charles II after the Interregnum
James II was forced to abdicate his throne, William and Mary were declared joint sovereigns by Parliament.
Calvinism being the dominant religion, consisting much of the merchant class, and Catholics and Jews having religious tolercane were all ________________.
Unique features of the Dutch Republic
King of Sweden who focused on trade rather than building up a huge military (too costly)