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Along with many casualties from both sides, the __________________ were that England struggled with economic burdens while the French became less dependent on England and raised taxes to pay for the war.

Results of the Hundred Years War.

Centered in Constantinople, the Turkish imperial state that conquered large amounts of land in the Middle East, North Africa, and the Balkans, and fell after World War I.

Ottoman Empire

What was the greatest maritime republic in Italy?

Venetian Republic

What Italian city was the center of Renaissance culture in the 15th century?

Republic of Florence

Author of the "Prince". Stated that politically, "the ends justifies the means". Stated that for rulers, "it was better to be feared than to be loved".


Event caused by armies of the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V that symbolized the end of the Renaissance in Italy1527

Sack of Rome

known as the "father of humanism". Considered first modern writer (did not write about religion). Claimed the Middle Ages were the Dark Ages. Influenced by Cicero.


author of "The Book of the Courtier". Specified qualities neccesary to be a true gentlemen. Rejected crude social habits.


Sculptures of naked the naked human body, sculpures of humans made to perfection, and shows tremendous emotions.

How humanism is expressed in art

agreed upon by the Spanish and the Portuguese to clear up confusion on newly claimed land in the New World.

Treaty of Tordesillas

author of "In Praise of Folly", one of the most well-known northern humanists, criticized immorality and hypocrisy of Church leaders and the clergy.


began to enjoy increased access to education. Looked at as "ornaments" to their spouses.

Upper-class women during the Renaissance

Peasants only had nuclear family, wealthier people had extended families. Dowries were very important in families so both families could benefit.

Trends about marriage and family

Tended to be much more local or regional, weren't absolutist, and did not neccesarily feel like they belonged to a "nation".

Characteristics of "new monarchs"

Represents a major blow to papal influence in France because the kind of France now had power to appoint bishops to the Gallican (French) Church.

Concordat of Bologna

Goal was to remove the last of the Moors and the Jews and "Christianize" Spain.


What is the term for when investors pooled resources for a common purpose?

Joint stock company

the city that became the banking and commercial center of Europe in the 16th century.


Which class was most impacted by the Commercial Revolution?

Middle class (bourgeoisie)

Event during the 16th century where prices rose gradually, caused by the rising population of Europe increased the demand for goods.

The Price Revolution

Building on Bartholomew Dias' route, this man completed an all-water expedition to India in 1498.

Vasco de Gama

Priest and former conquistador who pulicly criticized the ruthlessness with which Columbus and his succesors treated the Amerindians.

Barholomew de las Casas

general movement in England to enclose the common land and waste land on which small farmers grazed their stock and to reduce the number of field strips used for growing crops.

Enclosure movement

Religous wars and divisions created a panic environment; blamed witches and began to pursue them

Purpose of witch hunts

He believed that people should obey their political authorities even if they were corrupt.

Luther's view on the Swabian Peasant Revolt

Temporarily ended the struggle in Germany over Lutheranism. Allowed German Princes to choose either Protestantism or Catholicism.

Peace of Augsburg

God already knows who is going to Heaven and who is destined for Hell.


Areas to which Calvinism spread

France, Scotland, and Netherlands

Someone who publicy converted faiths to gain the loyalty of the country


Reaffirmed the 7 sacraments to be true. Approved the "Index of Forbidden Books".

Council of Trent

Pope Paul III challenged Protestantism by improving church discipline and responding to Protestant criticism.

Features of Counter (Catholic) Reformation

author of "Spiritual Exercises" and the founder of the Jesuits (Society of Jesus)

Ignatius of Loyola

King of the Netherlands, led 17 provinces against the Spanish Inquisition

William of Orange

first Bourbon king, his rise to power ended the French Civil Wars, and he was a politique

Henry IV

degree of religious toleration to Huguenots

Edict of Nantes

Germany physically devastated. Germany was further divided by the decline of the Holy Roman Empire. Ended the wars of religion. Rise of France as the dominant European power. Balance of power diplomacy emerged in Europe. These were all __________.

Results of Thirty Years War

"Lord Protector", denied rights to Anglicans and Catholics, and allowed Jew to return to England.

Oliver Cromwell

nobles revolted against Mazarin, competition between nobles allowed Mazarin to defeat them. This "scuffle" is known as what?

The Fronde

Nobility of the Robe

new nobles who purchased their titles from the monarchy

an English military and political leader who overthrew the English monarchy and temporarily turned England into a republican Commonwealth

Oliver Cromwell's rule in England

Louis XIV's financial minister, his goal was for France to be economically self sufficient, and he oversaw things such as construction of roads and canals.

Jean Baptiste Colbert

State control over a country's economy; exporting more than you import.


a nation's policy of accumulating as much precious metal (gold and silver) as possible while preventing its outward flow to other countries.


this type of architecture reflected the image and power of absolute monarchs; this sculpture by Bernini evokes tremendous emotion

Baroque and the Ecstasy of St. Theresa

Paintings specialized in simple domestic interior scenes of ordinary people, he was a master in the use of

Jan Vermeer and the "Dutch Style"

began in 1660 when the English, Scottish and Irish monarchies were all restored under Charles II after the Interregnum


James II was forced to abdicate his throne, William and Mary were declared joint sovereigns by Parliament.

Glorious Revolution

Calvinism being the dominant religion, consisting much of the merchant class, and Catholics and Jews having religious tolercane were all ________________.

Unique features of the Dutch Republic

King of Sweden who focused on trade rather than building up a huge
military (too costly)

Gustavus Adolphus

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