Anatomy Review: Urinary System
Terms in this set (48)
The urinary system ____
rids the body of waste materials and controls the volume and composition of body fluids
________ in the _____ are essential to these processes
Highly specialized cells; kidneys
The urinary system is composed of _____
paired kidneys and ureters, the urinary bladder, and the urethra
_____ is produced in the kidneys, and then drains through the ____ to the _____, where ____ is stored. ____ is eliminated from the body
through the ____.
Urine; ureters, urinary bladder, urine, urine, urethra
_____ is eliminated from the body through the urethra
Each bean-shaped ____ is embedded in a ____ ____ ____
kidney; fatty adipose capsule
Review the anatomy of the urinary system, particularly the kidney
Examine the vascular and tubular portions of the nephron
Compare and contrast the specialized cells of the tubular epithelium
review the unique structure of the juxtaglomerular apparatus
The kidneys are ______, meaning they ______
retroperitoneal, lying against the dorsal body wall in the upper abdomen.
An _________ which is part of the endocrine system, lies on top if each kidney.
Several structures enter or exit the concave surface of the kidney at the ________, including the ____ and the ______, which drains into the _________
renal hilus, ureter, renal artery, inferior vena cava
When the renal vein is removed and the kidney is shown in frontal section, you can see the deeper _______ and its connection to the _____
renal artery, abdominal aorta
Branching from the renal artery are the _____ and _____ _____
segmental and lobar arteries
Together, these vessels provide the kidneys with a __________ under _______ that allows them to _________ and _______ the ____
rich blood supply, high pressure, continuously filter and cleanse the blood.
Internally, the human kidney is composed of ____ distinct regions
The outermost layer is called the ________. It contains about one million ______, the _____________
renal cortex, one million nephrons, the filtering units that form urine.
the types of nephrons are the ________ which lie _______; and the _________ which lie ______
cortical nephrons; lie completely within the cortex, and the Juxtamedullary nephrons, which lie in both the cortex and medulla.
The middle layer is called the __________, in which you can see the triangular ________. These ______ look striated because of parallel bundles of _____ carrying ____ from the _____.
renal medulla, renal pyramids, pyramids, ducts, urine, nephrons.
The areas between the renal pyramids are the _________. They are extensions of the ____ that provide a route for the passage of ________ and _____ to and from the ______
renal columns, cortex, blood vessels and nerves, outer cortex
The funnel-shaped ______ is within the _____. The ______ collects ____ from the ______ and conveys it into the ______ for passage to the ________
renal pelvis, renal sinus, renal pelvis, urine, pyramids, ureter, urinary bladder.
The ____ is the structural and functional unit of the kidneys. It consists of a specialized _________ and closely associated __________.
nephron, tubular structure, blood vessels.
Blood entering the kidney through the _____, flows first into the ______ and then into the _______
renal artery, segmental arteries, lobar arteries.
From there, it enters the _________, the _____, the _________, and the still smaller _______, which empty into a capillary bed called the _______.
interlobar arteries, arcutate arteries, small interlobular arteries/cortical radiate artery, afferent arterioles, glomerulus
Leading away from the _____ is the _____. Notice that the ______ is larger in diameter than the ________
golmerulus, efferent arteriole, afferent arteriole, efferent arteriole.
Blood passes from the ________ into the ________ and _____
efferent arterioles, peritubular capillaries, vasa recta
From there, blood drains into the _______, flows into the ______ and enters the ________, eventually reaching the ________.
interlobular vein, arcuate vein, interlobar vein/cortical radiate vein, renal vein.
The expanded 'cup shaped' end of the tubule surrounding the ____ is called the ______ or _____
glomerulus, glomerular or Bowman's capsule
Water and solutes pass from the blood into the _________ and then flow into the _________
glomerulus, proximal convoluted tubule or PCT
After many loops and convolutions, the tubule straightens out, and fluid flows down the _______ , segment of the _______ into the medulalary region, and then up the ______, or ____,, segment back up into the cortical region.
descending or thin, loop of Henle, ascending or thick.
From the loop of Henle, the fluid then enters and twists and turns of the early and late __________, eventually emptying into a _______
distal convoluted tubule or DCT, cortical collecting duct
The duct extends into the ____, forming the ________, which carries the ____ through the tubules of the renal pyramid to the renal pelvis.
medulla, medullary collecting duct, urine
The _____, with its larger incoming of afferent arteriole and smaller outgoing efferent arteriole, is nested withing the _______ something like a fist thrust into a balloon. Together, these structures are called the ________
glomerulus, glomerular capsule, renal corpuscle
The ________ of the glomerular capsule is made up of specialized cells called ____, which surround the permeable capillaries.
visceral layer, podocytes
Between the visceral and parietal layers of the capsule lies the ______, which collects fluid and solutes being filtered from the blood.
In longitudinal section, the endothelial lining shows small openings called ______, which allow for the passage of water and solutes such as ions and small molecules.
There are ______ between endothelial cells in the capillary.
The _____ membrane encloses the capillary endothelium
Surrounding the basement membrane is a layer of _____. These cells have large
'leg-like' extensions, which in turn have small 'fringe-like' extensions called
Pedicels from adjacent areas interdigitate loosely to form spaces called ___
Substances being filtered must pass first through the ____, then through
the _____, and finally through the _____ and into the _____.
fenestrations, basement membrane, filtration slits, capsular space
Together, the ____, _____, and ______make up the filtration membrane.
capillary endothelium, basement membrane, podocytes
As the thick ascending loop of Henle transitions into the early distal convoluted
tubule, the tubule runs adjacent to the _______.
afferent and efferent arterioles.
Where the cells of the arterioles and of the thick ascending loop of Henle are in
contact with each other, they form the monitoring structure called the
The modified smooth muscle cells of the arterioles (mainly the afferent arteriole) in
this area are called ______. These enlarged cells serve as
____ sensitive to _____ within the arterioles.
juxtaglomerular or JG cells, baroreceptors, blood pressure
Cells of the thick ascending segment in contact with the arterioles form the _____. These cells monitor and respond to changes in the ____ of the filtrate
in the tubule.
macula densa, osmolarity
• The urinary system is composed of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra.
• The kidney is composed of three regions: the renal cortex, medulla, and pelvis.
• The functional unit of the kidney, the nephron, is composed of a tubular portion
and associated blood vessels.
• Each region of the tubular portion of the nephron depends on the unique features
of its epithelial cells to carry out its function.